The thoracic cage is formed by the (a) sternum and (b) 12 pairs of ribs with their costal cartilages. The ribs are anchored posteriorly to the 12 thoracic vertebrae. The sternum consists of the manubrium, body, and xiphoid process. The ribs are classified as true ribs (1–7) and false ribs (8–12). The last two pairs of false ribs are also known as floating ribs (11–12).
Cut Rita Zahara
“Thoracic Cage,” Open Educational Resource (OER) - USK Library, accessed December 7, 2023, http://uilis.usk.ac.id/oer/items/show/1078.