# 500 Science

## Dublin Core

### Title

500 Science

## Collection Items

### From theORy to application: learning to optimize with Operations Research in an interactive way

This book serves as a comprehensive roadmap for navigating the realm of Operations Research (OR). From laying down fundamental mathematical principles to crafting precise modeling techniques and their solution methods, it culminates in a panoramic…

### Adjustment theory: an introduction

Adjustment theory can be regarded as the part of mathematical geodesy that deals with the optimal combination of redundant measurements together with the estimation of unknown parameters. It is essential for a geodesist, its meaning comparable to…

### Advanced Technologies for Protein Complex Production and Characterization

This edited volume discusses the identification, discovery, characterization, structure determination and modeling of multicomponent macromolecular complexes, and as such, it fully complements the first volume (ISBN 978-3-319-27214-6), which targeted…

### Advanced Mathematical Science for Mobility Society

This open access book presents the mathematical methods for huge data and network analysis. The automotive industry has made steady progress in technological innovations under the names of Connected Autonomous-Shared-Electric (CASE) and Mobility as a…

### A Roadmap for Plant Genome Editing

This open access book is an update of genome editing techniques applied to a range of plants. We discuss the latest techniques and applications to cereals, roots and tubers, oilseed crops, fruit and forest trees, vegetables, legumes and algae…

### A Natural History of the Emirates

For many people, thoughts of the United Arab Emirates conjure images of ultramodern skyscrapers and rolling sand dunes. However, the Emirates are a rich mosaic of ecosystems and habitats that support surprisingly diverse communities of organisms, and…

### 3 Degrees More :

The Impending Hot Season and How Nature Can Help Us Prevent It

This open access book describes in detail what life on this planet would be like if its average surface temperature were to rise 3 degrees Celsius above the preindustrial level. On this basis, the book argues that it is imperative to keep this…

### Nutrition for Nurses

Nutrition for Nurses is structured to support the flexible integration of nutrition content across both system-based and nursing competency-based curricula. It can be used whether nutrition is taught as a standalone course or part of another nursing…

### A Roadmap for Plant Genome Editing

This open access book is an update of genome editing techniques applied to a range of plants. We discuss the latest techniques and applications to cereals, roots and tubers, oilseed crops, fruit and forest trees, vegetables, legumes and algae…

### Big Data for Epidemiology: Applied Data Analysis Using National Health Surveys

National data sets provide an avenue for students to practice data analytic skills while also answering meaningful research questions. This open education resource was developed to train future public health professionals how to conduct secondary…

### Mathematics for Biomedical Physics

Mathematics for Biomedical Physics is an open access peer-reviewed textbook geared to introduce several mathematical topics at the rudimentary level so that students can appreciate the applications of mathematics to the interdisciplinary field of…

### Data Analysis in the Psychological Sciences: A Practical, Applied, Multimedia Approach

This open resources textbook contains 10 Units that describe and explain the main concepts in statistical analysis of psychological data. In addition to conceptual descriptions and explanations of the basic analyses for descriptive statistics, this…

### Crop Adaptation and Improvement for Drought-Prone Environments

This book focuses on three important elements in the development of cereal and legume crops in semi-arid West Africa. The first section illustrates the socioeconomic factors that affect the food system for these crops and contains an overview of crop…

### Microbiology for Earth Scientists

Microorganisms are the most abundant form of life on Earth and in recent decades it has become increasingly clear that their collective activities are one of the dominant forces shaping the Earth.

This book provides earth scientists with an…

This book provides earth scientists with an…

### Fundamentals of Cell Biology

This textbook is focused specifically on the principles and concepts of a foundational Cell Biology course. The book takes a more conceptual approach that highlights how scientists study cells, and how to analyze and interpret experimental results.…

### Counting Rocks! An Introduction to Combinatorics

This textbook, Counting Rocks!, is the written component of an interactive introduction to combinatorics at the undergradaute level. Throughout the text, we link to videos where we describe the material and provide examples; see the Youtube playlist…

### A Natural History of the Emirates

For many people, thoughts of the United Arab Emirates conjure images of ultramodern skyscrapers and rolling sand dunes. However, the Emirates are a rich mosaic of ecosystems and habitats that support surprisingly diverse communities of organisms, and…

### 3D Recording and Interpretation for Maritime Archaeology

This open access peer-reviewed volume was inspired by the UNESCO UNITWIN Network for Underwater Archaeology International Workshop held at Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia in November 2016. Content is based on, but not limited to, the work…

### Communicating Climate Change

Environmental educators face a formidable challenge when they approach climate change due to the complexity of the science and of the political and cultural contexts in which people live. There is a clear consensus among climate scientists that…

### Introduction to Probability

This is an introduction to probability theory, designed for self-study. It covers the same topics as the one-semester introductory courses which I taught at the University of Minnesota, with some extra discussion for reading on your own. The reasons…

### Quantitative Methods for

Plant Breeding

This open textbook covers common statistics used in agriculture research, including experimental design in plant breeding and genetics, as well as the analysis of variance, regression, and correlation.

### Cultivar Development

This open textbook places emphasis on the design of a process pipeline for continuous development of new improved cultivars as a means to implement the cycle of crop improvement. Essential topics in New Line Development and New Line Evaluation are…

### Classical Numerical Methods in Scientific Computing

Partial differential equations are paramount in mathematical modelling with applications in engineering and science. The book starts with a crash course on partial differential equations in order to familiarize the reader with fundamental properties…

### Numerical Methods in Scientific Computing

This is a book about numerically solving partial differential equations occurring in technical and physical contexts and the authors have set themselves a more ambitious target than to just talk about the numerics. Their aim is to show the place of…

### Chemistry Techniques and Explorations: An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Manual - First Edition

Chemistry Techniques and Explorations (2023) by Dr. Daniel R. Albert is an eTextbook laboratory manual for first semester introductory chemistry courses. The manual includes two different types of experiments (Technique and Exploration) designed to…

### Laboratory Manual: General Chemistry I Honors - First Edition

General Chemistry I Honors Laboratory Manual (2023) is an eTextbook designed to provide a practical, hands-on approach to learning chemistry for students taking General Chemistry I Honors courses. The manual covers fundamental principles of…

### An Invitation to Statistics in Wasserstein Space

This open access book presents the key aspects of statistics in Wasserstein spaces, i.e. statistics in the space of probability measures when endowed with the geometry of optimal transportation. Further to reviewing state-of-the-art aspects, it also…

### 5th Symposium on Terrestrial Gravimetry: Static and Mobile Measurements (TG-SMM 2019)

This open access volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Terrestrial Gravimetry: Static and Mobile Measurements (TG-SMM2019) held in St. Petersburg, Russia, October 1 – 4, 2019. The symposium was hosted by the State Research Center of…

### Introducing Mathematical Biology

Mathematical modelling plays an increasingly important role in almost any area of life sciences, and this interactive textbook focuses on the areas of population ecology, infectious diseases, immunology and cell dynamics, gene networks and…

### Crop Improvement

This textbook covers basic principles in the genetic improvement of crop plants. Emphasis is placed on methods of cultivar development in self-pollinating, cross-pollinating, and asexually propagating crops. Relevant examples of crop improvement…

### Crop Improvement

This textbook covers basic principles in the genetic improvement of crop plants. Emphasis is placed on methods of cultivar development in self-pollinating, cross-pollinating, and asexually propagating crops. Relevant examples of crop improvement…

### Climate Justice in Your Classroom

As the inequitable impacts of climate change become more evident and destructive, it is essential for climate and environmental justice, as well as methods of civic engagement, to be taught at a high-level to college-level students. This book…

### Analysis of Reaction-Diffusion Models with the Taxis Mechanism

This open access book deals with a rich variety of taxis-type cross-diffusive equations. Particularly, it intends to show the key role played by quasi-energy inequality in the derivation of some necessary a priori estimates. This book addresses…

### African Handbook of Climate Change Adaptation

This open access book discusses current thinking and presents the main issues and challenges associated with climate change in Africa. It introduces evidences from studies and projects which show how climate change adaptation is being - and may…

### Fish, Fishing, and Conservation

Fish, Fishing, and Conservation is a 389-page, peer-reviewed open textbook intended for undergraduate students who are exploring majors in Fish & Wildlife. It is also relevant to a general audience or for use in courses which explore social and…

### Algorithms for Sparse Linear Systems

Large sparse linear systems of equations are ubiquitous in science, engineering and beyond. This open access monograph focuses on factorization algorithms for solving such systems. It presents classical techniques for complete factorizations that are…

### A Practical Guide to Atmospheric Simulation Chambers

This open access title presents atmospheric simulation chambers as effective tools for atmospheric chemistry research. State-of-the-art simulation chambers provide unprecedented opportunities for atmospheric scientists to perform experiments that…

### 14th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM2019)

This open access proceedings of the 14th International Council for Applied Mineralogy Congress (ICAM) in Belgorod, Russia cover a wide range of topics including applied mineralogy, advanced and construction materials, ore and industrial minerals,…

### Threshold Concepts in Biochemistry

Biochemistry (and Molecular Biology) represent one of the fastest-growing fields of scientific research and technical innovation and the resulting biotechnology is increasingly applied to other fields of study. So, an understanding of Biochemistry is…

### Introduction to Systems Biology: Workbook for Flipped-Classroom Teaching

This book is an introduction to the language of systems biology, which is spoken among many disciplines, from biology to engineering. Authors Thomas Sauter and Marco Albrecht draw on a multidisciplinary background and evidence-based learning to…

### Introduction to Biological Psychology

An open access textbook designed primarily for use by first and second year undergraduate students of British Psychological Society accredited Psychology degree courses in the UK.

### Earth, Space, and Environmental Science Explorations with ArcGIS Pro - Second Edition

When I first started teaching Geographic Information Systems (GIS) over 15 years ago, there were only a handful of GIS tutorial books on the market. While a few of them focused on a particular theme, many of them were mainly technical publications…

### Case Studies in Systems Chemistry

This publication was produced as a teaching tool for college chemistry.The book is a text for a computer-based unit on the chemistry of acid-base titrations, and is designed for use with FORTRAN or BASIC.computer systems, and with a programmable…

### Calculus in Context - 2008 Edition

We believe that calculus can be for students what it was for Euler and the Bernoullis: a language and a tool for exploring the whole fabric of science. We also believe that much of the mathematical depth and vitality of calculus lies in connections…

### Sports Nutrition Laboratory Manual

This lab manual is designed for the upper division and graduate sports nutrition courses, covering, supporting, and reinforcing fundamental nutritional concepts. This manual provides hands-on experience that will help strengthen student’s knowledge…

### Advanced Algebra v. 1.0

Intermediate Algebra is the second part of a two-part course in Algebra. Written in a clear and concise manner, it carefully builds on the basics learned in Elementary Algebra and introduces the more advanced topics required for further study of…

### Advances in Assessment and Modeling of Earthquake Loss

This open access book originates from an international workshop organized by Turkish Natural Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP) in November 2019 that gathered renown researchers from academia, representatives of leading international reinsurance and…

### Addressing the Climate Crisis

This open access book brings together a collection of cutting-edge insights into how action can and is already being taken against climate change at multiple levels of our societies, amidst growing calls for transformative and inclusive climate…

### Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals

This open access book is designed as a continuation of the editor’s 2019 book Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals. This volume provides an in-depth analysis of industry sectors globally, and its purpose is to present emission reduction…

### Control Problems for Conservation Laws with Traffic Applications

Conservation and balance laws on networks have been the subject of much research interest given their wide range of applications to real-world processes, particularly traffic flow. This open access monograph is the first to investigate different…

### The Application of Ant Colony Optimization

The application of advanced analytics in science and technology is rapidly expanding, and developing optimization technics is critical to this expansion. Instead of relying on dated procedures, researchers can reap greater rewards by utilizing…

### Sublinear Computation Paradigm

This open access book gives an overview of cutting-edge work on a new paradigm called the “sublinear computation paradigm,” which was proposed in the large multiyear academic research project “Foundations of Innovative Algorithms for Big Data.” That…

### Matching minors in bipartite graphs

In this thesis we adapt fundamental parts of the Graph Minors series of Robertson and Seymour for the study of matching minors and investigate a connection to the study of directed graphs. We develope matching theoretic to established results of…

### International Symposium on Mathematics, Quantum Theory, and Cryptography

This open access book presents selected papers from International Symposium on Mathematics, Quantum Theory, and Cryptography (MQC), which was held on September 25-27, 2019 in Fukuoka, Japan. The international symposium MQC addresses the mathematics…

### Integrating Data Science and Earth Science

This open access book presents the results of three years collaboration between earth scientists and data scientist, in developing and applying data science methods for scientific discovery. The book will be highly beneficial for other researchers at…

### Values and Valuing in Mathematics Education

This engaging open access book discusses how a values and valuing perspective can facilitate a more effective mathematics pedagogical experience, and allows readers to explore multiple applications of the values perspective across different education…

### Boundary Value Problems, Weyl Functions, and Differential Operators

This open access book presents a comprehensive survey of modern operator techniques for boundary value problems and spectral theory, employing abstract boundary mappings and Weyl functions. It includes self-contained treatments of the extension…

### Service Design Capabilities

This open access book discusses service design capabilities in innovation processes, and provides a framework that guides design students, practitioners and researchers towards a better understanding of operational aspects of service design…

### Advances in Assessment and Modeling of Earthquake Loss

This open access book originates from an international workshop organized by Turkish Natural Catastrophe Insurance Pool (TCIP) in November 2019 that gathered renown researchers from academia, representatives of leading international reinsurance and…

### Addressing the Climate Crisis

This open access book brings together a collection of cutting-edge insights into how action can and is already being taken against climate change at multiple levels of our societies, amidst growing calls for transformative and inclusive climate…

### A Visual Atlas for Soil Micromorphologists

This open access atlas is an up-to-date visual resource on the features and structures observed in soil thin sections, i.e. soil micromorphology. The book addresses the growing interest in soil micromorphology in the fields of soil science, earth…

### The Science of Plants

An approachable guide to the fundamentals of plant science. Created for horticulture students, gardeners, science teachers, and anyone interested in understanding plants and how they grow. This is the required text for HORT 1001/6001 Plant…

### How To Do Science - Revised Edition

How To Do Science' has been written for students of the life sciences who are actively engaged in the scientific process. This guide introduces you to what it means to be a scientist. You will learn about the scientific method and how to carry out…

### Geology Online Lab Activities: An Open Educational Resource for Community College Students and Instructors

The online geology lab for community college students was developed by Dr. Rondi Davies, a faculty member at Queensborough Community College, City University New York, during two years of forced online synchronous learning brought on by the COVID-19…

### Mathematics Methods for Early Childhood

Welcome to Early Childhood Mathematics! This course satisfies the Early Childhood Unified requirements in the state of Kansas for a teaching license Birth to Grade 3.

Most people agree that early childhood includes the period from infancy until…

Most people agree that early childhood includes the period from infancy until…

### Organic Chemistry I

An open textbook that is suitable for the first semester of Organic Chemistry. Basic concepts of the structures and reactivities of organic molecules are covered in this open textbook. Besides the fundamental discussions of organic acids-bases,…

### Introduction to Statistical Thinking

The target audience for this book is college students who are required to learn statistics, students with little background in mathematics and often no motivation to learn more. It is assumed that the students do have basic skills in using computers…

### Elementary Earth and Space Science Methods

this book to help you as both a college student and a future teacher. Dr. Ted Neal asked us to help him create this resource from the perspective of students who have taken Science Methods II–what would we want in a textbook for this course? With…

### Elementary Calculus

This textbook covers calculus of a single variable, suitable for a year-long (or two-semester) course. Chapters 1-5 cover Calculus I, while Chapters 6-9 cover Calculus II. The book is designed for students who have completed courses in high-school…

### Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students

Cell Biology, Genetics, and Biochemistry for Pre-Clinical Students is an undergraduate medical-level resource for foundational knowledge across the disciplines of genetics, cell biology and biochemistry. This USMLE-aligned text is designed for a…

### Radiation Safety

The purpose of this OER is to provide students with a comprehensive textbook aligned with the NDT 130 (Radiographic Testing) course as taught at Linn-Benton Community College.

### Radiation Safety

The purpose of this OER is to provide students with a comprehensive textbook aligned with the NDT 130 (Radiographic Testing) course as taught at Linn-Benton Community College.

### Negotiating Climate Change in Crisis

Climate change negotiations have failed the world. Despite more than thirty years of high-level, global talks on climate change, we are still seeing carbon emissions rise dramatically. This edited volume, comprising leading and emerging scholars and…

### Technical Mathematics

This developmental-level mathematics textbook is intended for career-technical students. It was made possible by a grant from Open Oregon Educational Resources, which supports the development and implementation of high-quality materials at low or no…

### Bio-Inspired Sensory Systems

Using natural sensory system concepts to develop and improve sensory systems will continue to thrive for many years to come. Technology advances rapidly (Moore’s Law) as does our understanding of biological principles and designs. These trends fuel…

### Future Energy: Opportunities & Challenges

How can we produce enough sustainable energy while avoiding unacceptable environmental consequences? To evaluate the various energy options, we must understand the science of each potential energy source and energy use technology. This book presents…

### Coastal Dynamics

Coastal Dynamics focuses on the interrelation between physical wave, flow and sediment transport phenomena and the resulting morphodynamics of a wide variety of coastal systems. The textbook is unique in that it explicitly connects the dynamics of…

### From Growing to Biology: Plants 1e

Ready to find out how plants are grown and function? Take a fantastic voyage through plants. From Growing to Biology: Plants 1e brings the latest information for understanding of traditional and modern plant growing, form, and production. Topics…

### Mostly Harmless Statistics

This text is for an introductory level probability and statistics course with an intermediate algebra prerequisite. The focus of the text follows the American Statistical Association’s Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education…

### Teaching Math for Emergent Bilinguals: Building on Culture, Language, and Identity

This book is designed for pre-service/in-service teachers and others who will work or work with K–12 students who have linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds, especially students of other languages (English language learners/Emergent…

### Informal Calculus with Applications to Biological and Environmental Sciences

This book is an approachable introduction to calculus with applications to biology and environmental science. For example, one application in the book is determining the volume of earth moved in the 1959 earthquake that created Quake Lake. Another…

### Optimal, Integral, Likely Optimization, Integral Calculus, and Probability for Students of Commerce and the Social Sciences

Optimal, Integral, Likely is a free, open-source textbook intended for UBC’s course MATH 105: Integral Calculus with Applications to Commerce and Social Sciences. It is shared under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0…

### Marine Ecology Notes

This books is a general introduction to Marine Ecology, accompanying a lecture and excursion. It targets students without prior knowledge of the subject. The content is taken largely from Wikipedia, but curated and augmented by the authors.

### An Interactive Introduction to Organismal and Molecular Biology

This "textbook" is interactive, meaning that although each chapter has text, they also have interactive HTML5 content, such as quizzes, simulations, interactive videos, and images with clickable hotspots. Students receive instant feedback when they…

### Bioethics Across the Globe

This open access book addresses a variety of issues relating to bioethics, in order to initiate cross-cultural dialogue. Beginning with the history, it introduces various views on bioethics, based on specific experiences from Japan. It describes how…

### Biodiversity of Angola

This open access multi-authored book presents a 'state of the science' synthesis of knowledge on the biodiversity of Angola, based on sources in peer-reviewed journals, in books and where appropriate, unpublished official reports. The book identifies…

### Biodiversity and Health in the Face of Climate Change

This open access book identifies and discusses biodiversity’s contribution to physical, mental and spiritual health and wellbeing. Furthermore, the book identifies the implications of this relationship for nature conservation, public health,…

### The Behavioral Ecology of the Tibetan Macaque

This open access book summarizes the multi-disciplinary results of one of China’s main primatological research projects on the endemic Tibetan macaque (Macaca thibetana), which had continued for over 30 years, but which had never been reported on…

### The Beauty of Geology: Art of Geology Mapping in China Over a Century

This open access book contains a collection of rare geologic maps and figures made by Chinese geologists in the last century. Preserved in National Geological Archives of China, these artworks demonstrate the development and innovation of geological…

### Austenitic TRIP/TWIP Steels and Steel-Zirconia Composites

This open access book presents a collection of the most up-to-date research results in the field of steel development with a focus on pioneering alloy concepts that result in previously unattainable materials properties. Specifically, it gives a…

### International Cooperation for Enhancing Nuclear Safety, Security, Safeguards and Non-proliferation–60 Years of IAEA and EURATOM: Proceedings of the XX Edoardo Amaldi Conference, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Italy, October 9-10, 2017

This open access book examines key aspects of international cooperation to enhance nuclear safety, security, safeguards, and non-proliferation, thereby assisting in development and maintenance of the verification regime and fostering progress toward…

### Alternatives to Animal Testing

This open access book presents recent advances in the pure sciences that are of significance in the quest for alternatives to the use of animals in research and describes a variety of practical applications of the three key guiding principles for the…

### Agroecological Transitions: From Theory to Practice in Local Participatory Design

This Open Access book presents feedback from the ‘Territorial Agroecological Transition in Action’- TATA-BOX research project, which was devoted to these specific issues. The multidisciplinary and multi-organisation research team steered a four-year…

### Community Resilience to Climate Change: Theory, Research and Practice

This reader is an Open Educational Resource, meant to accompany a graduate or higher-level undergraduate university course in climate change resilience, adaptation, and/or planning. While the material is geared toward students in urban and regional…

### Statistics Hight School

This Statistics resource was developed under the guidance and support of experienced high school teachers and subject matter experts. It is presented here in multiple formats: PDF, online, and low-cost print. Statistics offers instruction in…

### Geological Structures: a Practical Introduction

This manual is about structures that occur within the Earth’s crust. Structures are the features that allow geologists to figure out how parts of the Earth have changed position, orientation, size and shape over time. This work requires careful…

### A Primer for Computational Biology

A Primer for Computational Biology aims to provide life scientists and students the skills necessary for research in a data-rich world. The text covers accessing and using remote servers via the command-line, writing programs and pipelines for data…

### Transition to Higher Mathematics: Structure and Proof - Second Edition

This book is written for students who have taken calculus and want to learn what “real mathematics" is. We hope you will find the material engaging and interesting, and that you will be encouraged to learn more advanced mathematics. This is the…

### Transition to Higher Mathematics: Structure and Proof - Second Edition

This book is written for students who have taken calculus and want to learn what “real mathematics" is. We hope you will find the material engaging and interesting, and that you will be encouraged to learn more advanced mathematics. This is the…

### General Microbiology - 1st Edition

Welcome to the wonderful world of microbiology! Yay! So. What is microbiology? If we break the word down it translates to “the study of small life,” where the small life refers to microorganisms or microbes. But who are the microbes? And how small…

### Permaculture Design: Tools for Climate Resilience

Climate is also where we begin the design process in another tool referenced in the Permaculture design system. This is the Scale of Landscape Permanence, originated by P.A.Yeomans, the founder of Keyline™ Design. Yeomans asserts that the order of…

### General Microbiology - 1st Edition

Welcome to the wonderful world of microbiology! Yay! So. What is microbiology? If we break the word down it translates to “the study of small life,” where the small life refers to microorganisms or microbes. But who are the microbes? And how small…

### Two-Dimensional Electronics and Optoelectronics

The discovery of monolayer graphene led to a Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded in 2010. This has stimulated further research on a wide variety of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials. The coupling of metallic graphene, semiconducting 2D…

### Turbulence: Numerical Analysis, Modelling and Simulation

The problem of accurate and reliable simulation of turbulent flows is a central and intractable challenge that crosses disciplinary boundaries. As the needs for accuracy increase and the applications expand beyond flows where extensive data is…

### Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene

This Special Issue looks forward as well as backward to best analyze the forest conservation challenges of the Caribbean. This is made possible by 75 years of research and applications by the United States Department of Agriculture, International…

### Trends in Microextraction Techniques for Sample Preparation

Micro-extraction techniques in sample preparation are gaining interest among analytical chemists as they comply with green analytical chemistry demands and ensure environmental protection and public safety. Savings in cost and time are considered as…

### Transcultural Literary Studies: Politics, Theory, and Literary Analysis

Witnessing the rise of nationalism, nativism, and xenophobia in many countries, theories of transculturalism arose, in part, out of the concern that multi- and intercultural identity models have not set themselves sufficiently apart from their own…

### Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis

Although the seminal work of Fujishima et al. dates back to 1971, TiO2 still remains the most diffused and studied semiconductor, employed in photo-oxidation processes for cleantech (i.e., polluted water and air treatment), in solar fuel production…

### Thermophiles and Thermozymes

Interest in the study of life in hot environments, both with respect to the inhabiting microorganisms and the enzymes they produce, is currently very high. The biological mechanisms responsible for the resistance to high temperatures are not yet…

### Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics of Small Systems

A challenging frontier in modern statistical physics concerns systems with a small number of degrees of freedom, far from the thermodynamic limit. Beyond the general interest in the foundation of statistical mechanics, the relevance of this subject…

### Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Structural Lightweight Alloys

The need to reduce the ecological footprint of water/land/air vehicles in this era of climate change requires pushing the limits regarding the development of lightweight structures and materials. This requires a thorough understanding of their…

### Tea in Health and Disease

Tea, made from the leaves of the Camellia senenisis plant, is the second most consumed beverage worldwide after water. Accumulating evidence from cellular, animal, epidemiological and clinical studies have linked tea consumption to various health…

### Synthetic DNA and RNA Programming

Dear Colleagues, Synthetic biology is a broad and emerging discipline that capitalizes on recent advances in molecular biology, genetics, protein and RNA engineering and omics technologies. These technologies have transformed our ability to reveal…

### Synthesis and Applications of New Spin Crossover Compounds

The crystal chemistry of spin crossover (SCO) behavior in coordination compounds can potentially be in association with smart materials—promising materials for applications as components of memory devices, displays, sensors and mechanical devices…

### Symmetry in Quantum Optics Models

Prototypical quantum optics models, such as the Jaynes–Cummings, Rabi, Tavis–Cummings, and Dicke models, are commonly analyzed with diverse techniques, including analytical exact solutions, mean-field theory, exact diagonalization, and so on.…

### Symmetry in Graph Theory

This book contains the successful invited submissions to a Special Issue of Symmetry on the subject of ""Graph Theory"". Although symmetry has always played an important role in Graph Theory, in recent years, this role has increased significantly in…

### Sustainability through the Lens of Environmental Sociology

Our planet is undergoing radical environmental and social changes. Sustainability has now been put into question by, for example, our consumption patterns, loss of biodiversity, depletion of resources, and exploitative power relations. With apparent…

### Surface Modification to Improve Properties of Materials

This book contains selected contributions on surface modification to improve the properties of solid materials. The surface properties are tailored either by functionalization, etching, or deposition of a thin coating. Functionalization is achieved…

### Surface Chemistry and Catalysis

The present printed edition of the Special Issue “Surface Chemistry and Catalysis” published in Catalysts aims to cover some of the recent advances in the field of heterogeneous catalysis that can be obtained by means of advanced characterization…

### Structure, Chemical Analysis, Biosynthesis, Metabolism, Molecular Engineering and Biological Functions of Phytoalexins

Ever since the concept of phytoalexins was proposed by Müller and Borger in 1940, these compounds have attracted considerable attention due to the central role they play in the defense mechanisms of various plants. Besides displaying antifungal…

### Structural Design and Properties of Coordination Polymers

The assembly of organic ligands and metal centres yields coordination polymers, many of which find applications in conductivity, catalysis, magnetism, gas sorption, biological sensing and luminescence. The structure and topology of coordination…

### Structural Control of Mineral Deposits. Theory and Reality

Structural Control"" remains a crucial point that frequently lacks in any scientific and/or economic analysis of ore deposits, whatever their type and class. The case of lode deposits is exemplary, although also other deposits, like breccia pipe,…

### Stochastic Processes: Theory and Applications

The aim of this special issue is to publish original research papers that cover recent advances in the theory and application of stochastic processes. There is especial focus on applications of stochastic processes as models of dynamic phenomena in…

### Statistical Analysis and Stochastic Modelling of Hydrological Extremes

Hydrological extremes have become a major concern because of their devastating consequences and their increased risk as a result of climate change and the growing concentration of people and infrastructure in high-risk zones. The analysis of…

### Special Functions: Fractional Calculus and the Pathway for Entropy

This book deals with the connection between entropy, probability, and fractional dynamics as they appeared, for example, in solar neutrino astrophysics since the 1970's (Mathai and Rathie 1975, Mathai and Pederzoli 1977, Mathai and Saxena 1978,…

### Solid State Lasers Materials, Technologies and Applications

Solid-state lasers offer unique qualities in terms of flexibility, robustness, efficiency, and wavelength diversity. For these reasons, they are nowadays irreplaceable tools in many scientific and industrial applications. The engineering of new…

### Solar Radiation, Modelling and Remote Sensing

Accurate solar radiation knowledge and its characterization on the Earth’s surface are of high interest in many aspects of environmental and engineering sciences. Modeling of solar irradiance from satellite imagery has become the most widely used…

### Sol-Gel Chemistry Applied to Materials Science

Sol–gel technology is a contemporary advancement in science that requires taking a multidisciplinary approach with regard to its various applications. This book highlights some applications of the sol–gel technology, including protective coatings,…

### Smart and Functional Polymers

Smart and Functional Polymers”. The collected research and review articles focus on the synthesis and characterization of advanced functional polymers, polymers with specific structures and performances, current improvements in advanced polymer-based…

### Sharing Cities Shaping Cities

The sharing economy and collaborative consumption are attracting a great deal of interest due to their business, legal and civic implications. The consequences of the spreading of practices of sharing in urban environments and under daily dynamics…

### Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment…

### Sea Surface Roughness Observed by High Resolution Radar

Changes in sea surface roughness are usually associated with a change in the sea surface wind field. This interaction has been exploited to measure sea surface wind speed by scatterometry. A number of features on the sea surface associated with…

### Satellite Altimetry for Earth Sciences

Satellite altimetry is a radar technique for measuring the topography of the Earth’s surface. It was initially designed for measuring the ocean’s topography, with reference to an ellipsoid, and for the determination of the marine geoid. Satellite…

### Safety and Microbiological Quality

The safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods covers complementary aspects of such products. Food fermentation is primary intended to improve food preservation, thereby modifying food properties. However, the management of chemical and…

### The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health

In pregnancy, maternal nutrition sustains and nourishes the developing child. Imbalances in either the direction of nutritional excess or deficiency can have adverse consequences for child health. In addition, more research now suggests that good…

### Polyhedral Structures, Symmetry, and Applications

Symmetry is an intriguing phenomenon manifesting itself in art, nature, and the mind. This Special Issue book features 19 articles about discrete geometric and combinatorial polyhedral structures, with symmetry as the unifying theme. These articles…

### Plasma Nanoengineering and Nanofabrication

With the recent advances in nanotechnology, plasma nanofabrication has become an exciting new niche because plasma-based approaches can deliver unique structures at the nanoscale that cannot be achieved by other techniques and/or in a more economical…

### Plant Genetics and Biotechnology in Biodiversity

Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) have been collected and exchanged for centuries. The rapid development of novel tools for genetic and phenotypic analysis is changing the way we can uncover diversity and exploit its value in…

### Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products

Currently, in the cosmetic industry, there is an increasing interest in natural extracts, particularly plant extracts. The inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations may contribute to minimize skin oxidative stress, which has been associated…

### Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance

Optimal nutrition is fundamental for enhancing training, recovery and performance in sport. Therefore, research has aimed to determine the efficacy of appropriate intake of nutrients, fluids, and supplements and their role in exercise performance.…

### Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

The purpose of this Special Issue “Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)” is to increase knowledge regarding the role of dietary composition and effects in IBD, describing the prevalence of malnutrition in IBD and the effect on clinical…

### Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: Implications for Maternal and Infant Health

Pregnancy is a viewed as a window to future health. With the birth of the developmental origins of human adult disease hypothesis, research and clinical practice has turned its attention to the influence of maternal factors such as health and…

### Nutrition and Eye Health

Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36…

### Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health burden. Approximately seven million people develop diabetes in both developed and developing countries every year, with the most dramatic increases occurring in Type 2 Diabetes. Especially alarming,…

### Nutrition and Chronic Conditions

The effects of nutrition in chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, stroke, and inflammatory bowel disease continue to generate interest among researchers. This stems from the fact that diet is a modifiable risk factor…

### Nucleation of Minerals: Precursors, Intermediates and Their Use in Materials Chemistry

Nucleation is the key event in mineralisation, but a general molecular understanding of phase separation mechanisms is still missing, despite more than 100 years of research in this field. In recent years, many studies have highlighted the occurrence…

### Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a nondestructive technique that can be used to characterize a wide variety of systems. Sustained development of both methodology and instrumentation have allowed NMR to evolve as a powerful technology,…

### Novel Membrane Technologies for Traditional Industrial Processes

Through reading this book, you will obtain information on: (1) the main problems in air separation and natural gas treatment by membrane separation and how to solve them; (2) processes involving membranes and new membrane materials for the more…

### New Trends in Differential and Difference Equations and Applications

This Special Issue aims to be a compilation of new results in the areas of differential and difference Equations, covering boundary value problems, systems of differential and difference equations, as well as analytical and numerical methods. The…

### New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures

One last comment concerns the fundamental contributions of Fourier analysis to quantum physics: Quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

### Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Neutrosophic logic and set are gaining significant attention in solving many real-life problems that involve uncertainty, impreciseness, vagueness, incompleteness, inconsistency, and indeterminacy. A number of new neutrosophic theories have been…

### Natural Stone and Architectural Heritage

This book is made up of contributions dealing with heritage stones from different countries around the world. The stones are described, as well as their use in vernacular and contemporaneous architecture. Heritage stones are those stones that have…

### Nanomaterials in Liquid Crystals

The dispersion of nanomaterials in liquid crystals, both of the thermotropic and the lyotropic kind, has attracted much interest over recent years. This is in part related to the success of liquid crystals in several applications, in particular flat…

### Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery

This Special Issue highlights novel nanocolloids like magnetic nanoparticles, nanomicelles, nanoliposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoclays, stimulating novel interests and ideas in research groups involved in the development of novel nanotools within the…

### Nano- and Microcomposites for Electrical Engineering Applications

In a dedicated Special Issue, the journal Polymers has compiled papers on the current trends and research directions within the preparation, characterization and application of polymer-based composite materials in electrical engineering applications.…

### Molecular Modeling in Drug Design

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Molecular Modeling in Drug Design that was published in Molecules

### Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science

This book will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in Sample Preparation Techniques for Separation Science. Everyone working in a laboratory must be familiar with the basis of these technologies, and they often involve elaborate and…

### Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Diseases of Aging

Mitochondria are vitally important cellular organelles and undergo their own aging process becoming less efficient in aged animals including humans. These changes have wide-ranging significance contributing to immune dysfunction (autoimmunity and…

### Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition

Milk is a nutritious food item with various beneficial properties and has a long tradition in nutrition, having been part of human diet for thousands of years. The composition of milk varies among different species, and milk quality is affected by…

### Microwave Indices from Active and Passive Sensors for Remote Sensing Applications

Past research has comprehensively assessed the capabilities of satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies, both active (SAR, scatterometers) and passive (radiometers), for the remote sensing of Earth’s surface. Besides brightness…

### Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation

Optimal nutrition is important during pregnancy and lactation for the health of both the mother and infant. Chronic deficiencies of both macronutrients and micronutrients are well established in developing countries. Although in developed countries…

### Microdevices and Microsystems for Cell Manipulation

Microfabricated devices and systems capable of micromanipulation are well-suited for the manipulation of cells. These technologies are capable of a variety of functions, including cell trapping, cell sorting, cell culturing, and cell surgery, often…

### Ultrafast photophysics and photochemistry of radical precursors in solution

The photoinduced dynamics of radical precursors in solution were investigated by means of femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy assisted by quantum chemical calculations. The investigated systems show a wide range of excited state lifetimes…

### Thermochemistry and Kinetics for the Oxidative Degradation of Dibenzofuran and Precursors

The emission of dibenzofurans and dioxins from industrial processes is a major environmental concern. Focussing on dibenzofuran, this study tend to improve our understanding of the general oxidation chemistry and to provide a mechanism suitable for…

### Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy on Electron-Boson Interactions in Superconductors

This work describes the experimental study of electron-boson interactions in superconductors by means of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy performed with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) at temperatures below 1 K. This new approach…

### Quantum simulation experiments with superconducting circuits

While the universal quantum computer seems not in reach for the near future, this work focusses on analog quantum simulation of intriguing quantum models of light-matter interactions, with the goal of achieving a computational speed-up as compared to…

### Optimisation of hysteretic losses in high-temperature superconducting wires

Hysteretic loss optimisations through numerical simulation and subsequent experimental confirmation in transport current and background field measurements: ferromagnetic shielding and topological geometry optimisation is used to reduce energy…

### Investigations of Angular Light Scattering by Complex Atmospheric Particles

This book experimentally investigates the angular light scattering properties of three atmospherically relevant particles: ice crystals, dust particles and secondary organic aerosol particles. Key optical quantities under examination are the…

### Hybrid quantum system based on rare earth doped crystals

Hybrid quantum circuits interfacing rare earth spin ensembles with microwave resonators are a promising approach for application as coherent quantum memory and frequency converter. In this thesis, hybrid circuits based on Er and Nd ions doped into…

### Marine Natural Products and Obesity

Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been…

### Marine Bioactive Peptides: Structure, Function, and Therapeutic Potential

Book, “Marine Bioactive Peptides: Structure, Function, andTherapeutic Potential"" includes up-to-date information regarding bioactivepeptides isolated from marine organisms. Marine peptides have been found invarious phyla, and their numbers have…

### Lie and non-Lie Symmetries: Theory and Applications for Solving Nonlinear Models

Since the end of the 19th century when the prominent Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie created the theory of Lie algebras and Lie groups and developed the method of their applications for solving differential equations, his theory and method have…

### Intermittency and Self-Organisation in Turbulence and Statistical Mechanics

There is overwhelming evidence, from laboratory experiments, observations, and computational studies, that coherent structures can cause intermittent transport, dramatically enhancing transport. A proper description of this intermittent phenomenon,…

### Intelligent Control in Energy Systems

The editors of this Special Issue titled “Intelligent Control in Energy Systems” have attempted to create a book containing original technical articles addressing various elements of intelligent control in energy systems. In response to our call for…

### Information Theory in Neuroscience

As the ultimate information processing device, the brain naturally lends itself to being studied with information theory. The application of information theory to neuroscience has spurred the development of principled theories of brain function, and…

### Inflammation and Cancer

Based on the most recent clinical and epidemiologic information, one out of seven newly diagnosed epithelial malignancies worldwide result from infection and chronic inflammation in conjunction with cancer. This book draws contributions from…

### The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following…

### Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention

Due to the considerable impacts of hydrological hazards on water resources, natural environments, and human activities, as well as on human health and safety, climate variability and climate change have become key issues for the research community.…

### Hydrogels in Tissue Engineering

Hydrogels are the foundation of regenerative medicine as a supportive matrix for cell immobilization and growth factor delivery. The fate of implanted cells is mediated by cell-matrix interaction at multiple scales and timed-release of growth factors…

### Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Health

Diet and lifestyle choices can substantially predispose an individual to, or protect against, many age- and obesity-related chronic diseases. According to the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements, dietary bioactives arecompounds in foodsnot needed for…

### Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet

Growing evidence shows that a dietary pattern inspired by Mediterranean dietprinciples is associated with numerous health benefits. A Mediterranean-typediet has been demonstrated to exert a preventive effect toward cardiovasculardiseases, in both…

### Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change…

### Groundwater Resources and Salt Water Intrusion in a Changing Environment

This Special Issue presents the work of 30 scientists from 11 countries. It confirms that the impacts of global change, resulting from both climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressure, are huge on worldwide coastal areas (and critically so…

### Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They play a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is…

### Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial-Based Films: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

This book is dedicated to highlighting some relevant advances in the field of thin films and coatings based on two-dimensional crystals and layered nanomaterials. Due to their layered structure, graphene and a variety of new 2D inorganic nanosystems,…

### High-resolution sensitivity studies with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM

High-resolution regional ensemble climate simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM are performed for Southwest Germany to study the sensitivity of meteorological and hydrological variables to parameter settings. The soil-vegetation model…

### Gravity forward modeling with a tesseroid-based Rock-Water-Ice approach – Theory and applications in the context of the GOCE mission and height system unification

Detailed information on the gravitational effect of the Earth’s topographic and isostatic masses can be calculated by gravity forward modeling. Within this book, the tesseroid-based Rock-Water-Ice (RWI) approach is developed, which allows a rigorous…

### Discrete Time Analysis of Consolidated Transport Processes

The objective of this work is to develop models for the analysis of consolidated transport processes. With the discrete time queuing models developed for inventory and vehicle consolidation, in particular milkrun systems, a detailed performance…

### Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to changes in lifestyle which predispose individuals to overweight and obesity. It is estimated that about 90% of the currently diagnosed adults have type 2 diabetes,…

### Dietary Fibers and Human Health

Dietary fiber has long been recognized for its role in digestive function. However, currently there is scientific debate about definitions (descriptive and analytical), optimal intake, and essentiality in the human diet. Dietary fiber is a key…

### Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new…

### Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents

In recent years, diet- and lifestyle-related disorders have become a major health threat in Europe and worldwide. The contributions in this monograph include 2 review articles and 19 original contributions from several countries that provide new…

### Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases

Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between oxidative stress and non-communicable disease, including cardiovascular disorders, mental disease, and several types of cancer. Oxidative stress is commonly known as an…

### Dietary and Non-Dietary Phytochemicals and Cancer

The role of many phytochemicals in the modulation of the carcinogenesis process has been well documented by combining in vitro and animal studies, as well as epidemiological evidence. When acting in synergy, phytochemicals exert potential anti-cancer…

### Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction

The purpose of these books is to have an updated systematic overview examining, in detail, the functional role of different diets and dietary components in maintaining glucose homeostasis and preventing long-term complications. The first book…

### Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment of Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a common neurological disease that can affect all ages. Although the majority of people with epilepsy can have excellent seizure control with medication, about 30% will fail anti-epileptic drugs. For those with medically intractable…

### Current Aspects of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are in vivo molecular imaging techniques which are widely used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of many major diseases. They use…

### Crystal Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Crystal Chemistry of Zinc, Cadmium and Mercury that was published in Crystals

### Coordination Chemistry of Silicon

The chemistry of silicon has always been a field of major concern due to its proximity to carbon on the periodic table. From the molecular chemist's viewpoint, one of the most interesting differences between carbon and silicon is their divergent…

### Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Recovery

It is well-known that colloid and interface science and petroleum production are inextricably linked. Whether in the reservoir, with its porous structure, or during recovery, crude oil is intimately associated with rock surfaces and with water, often…

### Colloid Chemistry

The Special Issue Colloid Chemistry presents a comprehensive overview of what opportunities the colloidal scale, i.e., the nanoscale, offers to scientists from chemistry, physics, materials sciences, and biomedicine. Sophistically designed colloids…

### Cellular Entry of Binary and Pore-Forming Bacterial Toxins

Bridging cellular membranes is a key step in the pathogenic action of both binary and pore-forming bacterial toxins. The former use their translocation domains, containing various structural motifs, to ensure efficient delivery of the toxic component…

### Catalyzed Synthesis of Natural Products

Natural products have been a source of inspiration for chemists and chemical biologists for many years, and have a special relevance in the chemical space. In recent years, several novel synthetic strategies have appeared, such as diversity-oriented…

### Catalytic, Photocatalytic and Electrocatalytic Processes for the Valorisation of CO2

Increasing attention is being paid to the development of effective technologies for the sequestration of CO2 and its storage. Hopefully, this will result in processes that can lead to its valorisation as a chemical, e.g., for the regeneration of…

### Catalytic Processes for The Valorisation of Biomass Derived Molecules

In the last decades, inedible lignocellulosic biomasses have attracted significant attention for being abundant resources that are not in competition with agricultural land or food production and, therefore, can be used as starting renewable material…

### Carotenoids and Human Health

Carotenoids are a group of approximately 600 compounds synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These pigments are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain animal products such as eggs and salmon, being responsible for their colorful…

### Carboxylic Acid Production

Carboxylic acids are truly central compounds in cellular metabolism. Carbon dioxide is captured from the atmosphere through formation of carboxylic groups and is also released, in part, by decarboxylation reactions. The reactivity of the carboxylic…

### Carbonic Anhydrases and Metabolism

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes present in all kingdoms of life, as they equilibrate the reaction between three simple but essential chemical species: CO2, bicarbonate, and protons. Discovered more than 80 years ago, in 1933,…

### Carbon Fibers and Their Composite Materials

Carbon fiber is an oft-referenced material that serves as a means to remove mass from large transport infrastructure. Carbon fiber composites, typically plastics reinforced with the carbon fibers, are key materials in the 21st century and have…

### Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease

Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental aspect of health and a crucial function in a variety of species, including humans. A primary disfunction in major global diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, is dysregulation of…

### Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world’s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich…

### Brain Asymmetry of Structure And/Or Function

This edited book brings together research reports on the asymmetry of brain function in various species, including humans, dogs, birds, lizards and bees. As shown in a wide range of species, and, as we now know, not solely in humans, the left and…

### Breastfeeding and Human Lactation

Human lactation has evolved to produce a milk composition that is uniquely-designed for the human infant. Not only does human milk optimize infant growth and development, it also provides protection from infection and disease. More recently, the…

### Boron Nitride Nanostructures

The research topic of this Special Issue will consider (i) the design of nanostructured boron nitride nanostructures with controlled crystal structures, porosity, and dimensionality, (ii) the functionalization of boron nitride, and (iii) prospective…

### Biosensors and Molecular Imprinting

Sensitive assays are often based on molecular recognition. Often stability problems have limited the use of such assays. The introduction of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) eliminates such limitations. With the introduction of biosensors…

### Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications

Thermochemical conversion processes convert biomass into gaseous, liquid and solid products named, syngas, bio-oil and char, respectively. Syngas and bio-oil are considered as alternative biofuels to fossil fuels and wide investigations are…

### Biological Crystallization

For at least six hundred million years, life has been a fascinating laboratory of crystallization, referred to as biomineralization. During this huge lapse of time, many organisms from diverse phyla have developed the capability to precipitate…

### Biological and Biogenic Crystallization

The intention of the Special Issue ""Biological and Biogenic Crystallization"" was to create an international platform aimed at covering a broad field of results involving the crystallization of biological molecules, including virus and protein…

### Biological Activity of Natural Secondary Metabolite Products

this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms. [Natural secondary metabolite products, which are isolated from plants, animals, microorganisms, etc.,…

### Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities,…

### Biodegradable Metals

The interest in biocompatible and biodegradable metals, such as magnesium, is mainly related to their potential use as structural material for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications where a temporary medical device is required. However, in the…

### Bioactive and Therapeutic Dental Materials

This book focus principally on ions-releasing and other smart dental materials for application in preventive and restorative dentistry, as well as in endodontics in the form of adhesives, resin-based composites, pastes, varnishes, liners and dental…

### Berry Antioxidants in Health and Disease

During the last decade, a high volume of work has been published on the health-promoting effects of berries (e.g., blueberries, cranberries, blackberries, etc.) that are rich in antioxidant phytochemicals, polyphenols. Consuming a diet rich in…

### Atmospheric Composition Observations

The composition of the atmosphere is a critical factor in understanding the nature and magnitude of processes associated with the planet’s energy balance, clouds and precipitation, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, and public health and welfare. A…

### Atherosclerosis and Vascular Imaging

Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death in the West, and vascular disease is the most common cardiovascular clinical problem. The disease results in serious morbidity and mortality, and carries economic cost implications. While conventional…

### Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems

This Special Issue will look at the advances made in the essential oils. Essential oils have received increasing attention as natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Synthetic…

### Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment

The book compiles scientific articles describing advances in nanomaterial synthesis and their application in water remediation. The publications treat diverse problems such as dye degradation, heavy metal ion, as well as radioactive element capture…

### Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder caused by antiphospholipid antibodies. It was characterized by excessive clotting of blood and/or certain complications of pregnancy (premature miscarriages, unexplained fetal death, or…

### Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 2

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even…

### Antioxidants in Health and Disease Volume 1

Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress is associated with a number of health disorders, including cardiovascular malfunction, certain types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, many other auto-immune diseases, and even…

### Advances in Food Analysis

This Topical Collection of Molecules provides the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis, confirming the growing public, academic, and industrial interest in this field. The articles broach topics related to sample…

### Advances in Computer Simulation Studies on Crystal Growth

Crystals are indispensable in technology, nature, and our daily lives. For example, cooking uses many kinds of crystallized products, such as salt, sugar, and fat crystals; electronic devices contain semiconductor crystals; living organisms produce…

### Advances and Applications of Nano-antimicrobial Treatments

Nowadays, great concerns are associated with the resistance demonstrated by many microorganisms towards the conventional antibiotic therapies. The failure of traditional antimicrobials, and the increasing healthcare costs, have encouraged scientific…

### Advanced Numerical Methods in Applied Sciences

The use of scientific computing tools is currently customary for solving problems at several complexity levels in Applied Sciences. The great need for reliable software in the scientific community conveys a continuous stimulus to develop new and…

### Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High Growth Industries

Advanced Glasses, Composites and Ceramics for High-Growth Industries (CoACH) was a European Training Network (ETN) project (http://www.coach-etn.eu/) funded by the Horizon 2020 program. CoACH involved multiple actors in the innovation ecosystem for…

### Abiotic Stresses in Agroecology: A Challenge for Whole Plant Physiology

Understanding plant responses to abiotic stresses is central to our ability to predict the impact of global change and environmental pollution on the production of food, feed and forestry. Besides increasing carbon dioxide concentration and rising…

### Abiotic Stress Signaling in Plants: Functional Genomic Intervention

Abiotic stresses such as high temperature, low-temperature, drought and salinity limit crop productivity worldwide. Understanding plant responses to these stresses is essential for rational engineering of crop plants. In Arabidopsis, the signal…

### Physical (A)Causality: Determinism, Randomness and Uncaused Events

This book addresses the physical phenomenon of events that seem to occur spontaneously and without any known cause. These are to be contrasted with events that happen in a (pre-)determined, predictable, lawful, and causal way. All our knowledge is…

### Social and Political Dimensions of Mathematics Education: Current Thinking

This book examines the current thinking on five critical social and political areas in mathematics education. It focuses on material conditions in teaching and learning, and details features of social life and their influence on mathematics teaching,…

### Semiotics in Mathematics Education

This volume discusses semiotics in mathematics education as an activity with a formal sign system, in which each sign represents something else. Theories presented by Saussure, Peirce, Vygotsky and other writers on semiotics are summarized in their…

### Riverine Ecosystem Management: Science for Governing Towards a Sustainable Future

This open access book surveys the frontier of scientific river research and provides examples to guide management towards a sustainable future of riverine ecosystems. Principal structures and functions of the biogeosphere of rivers are explained; key…

### Projection-Based Clustering through Self-Organization and Swarm Intelligence: Combining Cluster Analysis with the Visualization of High-Dimensional Data

This book covers aspects of unsupervised machine learning used for knowledge discovery in data science and introduces a data-driven approach to cluster analysis, the Databionic swarm (DBS). DBS consists of the 3D landscape visualization and…

### The Philosophy of Mathematics Education

This survey provides a brief and selective overview of research in the philosophy of mathematics education. It asks what makes up the philosophy of mathematics education, what it means, what questions it asks and answers, and what is its overall…

### The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the…

### Ranaviruses: Lethal Pathogens of Ectothermic Vertebrates

This is the first book on ranaviruses. Ranaviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that cause hemorrhagic disease in amphibians, reptiles, and fish. They have caused mass die-offs of ectothermic vertebrates in wild and captive populations around the…

### Marine Anthropogenic Litter

This book describes how man-made litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine…

### Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants

This book contains the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Mechanisms of Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants, where many plant and animal reproductive biologists gathered to discuss their recent progress in investigating the…

### The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks

Biodiversity observation systems are almost everywhere inadequate to meet local, national and international (treaty) obligations. As a result of alarmingly rapid declines in biodiversity in the modern era, there is a strong, worldwide desire to…

### Collider Physics within the Standard Model: A Primer

With this graduate-level primer, the principles of the standard model of particle physics receive a particular skillful, personal and enduring exposition by one of the great contributors to the field. In 2013 the late Prof. Altarelli wrote: The…

### Atlas of Challenges and Opportunities in European Neighbourhoods

This atlas provides a macro-regional overview of the areas that surround the European Union, from the Sahara to the Middle East, Western Balkans to European Russia, Turkey to the Arctic. Detailing key socio-economic data as well as developmental…

### Communicating, Networking: Interacting: The International Year of Global Understanding - IYGU

This book illustrates the benefits to be gained from digitally networked communication for health, education and transitioning economies in developing nations (Sierra Leone and Papua New Guinea) and developed nations. Growing powers of e-citizenship…

### Advances in Discrete Differential Geometry

This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex…

### Wearable Electronics and Embedded Computing Systems

Wearable electronics and embedded computing systems have been receiving a great deal of interest over the last two decades in research and commercial fields, with a special focus on biomedical applications. The key benefits introduced by these…

### Uses of Technology in Upper Secondary Mathematics Education

This survey addresses the use of technology in upper secondary mathematics education from four points of view: theoretical analysis of epistemological and cognitive aspects of activity in new technology mediated learning environments, the changes…

### Turbulence: Numerical Analysis, Modelling and Simulation

The problem of accurate and reliable simulation of turbulent flows is a central and intractable challenge that crosses disciplinary boundaries. As the needs for accuracy increase and the applications expand beyond flows where extensive data is…

### Transitions in Mathematics Education

This book examines the kinds of transitions that have been studied in mathematics education research. It defines transition as a process of change, and describes learning in an educational context as a transition process. The book focuses on research…

### Symmetry with Operator Theory and Equations

A plethora of problems from diverse disciplines such as Mathematics, Mathematical: Biology, Chemistry, Economics, Physics, Scientific Computing and also Engineering can be formulated as an equation defined in abstract spaces using Mathematical…

### Symmetry Measures on Complex Networks

Symmetry is found everywhere, to a greater or lesser degree. It is essential in all sciences and also as the basic substrate in all arts. The same happens with Complex Networks, which are the majority of all those that interest for advanced…

### Symmetry in Vision

Symmetry has a central role in the study of vision. The concept of symmetry has an ancient origin in considerations of visual appearance; in modern times, abstracted and formalized into Group Theory, it has found spectacular applications, far beyond…

### Symmetry in Graph Theory

This book contains the successful invited submissions to a Special Issue of Symmetry on the subject of ""Graph Theory"". Although symmetry has always played an important role in Graph Theory, in recent years, this role has increased significantly in…

### Symmetries of Nonlinear PDEs on Metric Graphs and Branched Networks

his Special Issue focuses on recent progress in a new area of mathematical physics and applied analysis, namely, on nonlinear partial differential equations on metric graphs and branched networks. Graphs represent a system of edges connected at one…

### Stochastic Processes: Theory and Applications

The aim of this special issue is to publish original research papers that cover recent advances in the theory and application of stochastic processes. There is especial focus on applications of stochastic processes as models of dynamic phenomena in…

### Stochastic Processes with Applications

Stochastic processes have wide relevance in mathematics both for theoretical aspects and for their numerous real-world applications in various domains. They represent a very active research field which is attracting the growing interest of scientists…

### Stark Broadening of Spectral Lines in Plasmas

Experimental and theoretical studies of Stark broadening of spectral lines in plasmas are the cornerstone of a large number of spectroscopic diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. As such, they are very important both fundamentally and…

### Social and Political Dimensions of Mathematics Education: Current Thinking

This book examines the current thinking on five critical social and political areas in mathematics education. It focuses on material conditions in teaching and learning, and details features of social life and their influence on mathematics teaching,…

### Scaling of Differential Equations

The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models,…

### Finite Difference Computing with Exponential Decay Models

This text provides a very simple, initial introduction to the complete scientific computing pipeline: models, discretization, algorithms, programming, verification, and visualization. The pedagogical strategy is to use one case study – an ordinary…

### Progress in Mathematical Ecology

Mathematical ecology is an area of applied mathematics concerned with the application of mathematical concepts, tools and techniques, usually in the form of mathematical models, to problems arising in population dynamics, ecology and evolution. This…

### Problem Solving in Mathematics Education

This survey book reviews four interrelated areas: (i) the relevance of heuristics in problem-solving approaches – why they are important and what research tells us about their use; (ii) the need to characterize and foster creative problem-solving…

### Particle Accelerator Physics

This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics.The present 4th edition has been significantly revised,…

### Optimization in Control Applications

Mathematical optimization is the selection of the best element in a set with respect to a given criterion. Optimization has become one of the most-used tools in modern control theory for computing the control law, adjusting the controller parameters…

### Operators of Fractional Calculus and Their Applications

During the past four decades or so, various operators of fractional calculus, such as those named after Riemann–Liouville, Weyl, Hadamard, Grunwald–Letnikov, Riesz, Erdelyi–Kober, Liouville–Caputo, and so on, have been found to be remarkably popular…

### New Trends in Statistical Physics of Complex Systems

A topical research activity in statistical physics concerns the study of complex and disordered systems. Generally, these systems are characterized by an elevated level of interconnection and interaction between the parts so that they give rise to a…

### New Trends in Differential and Difference Equations and Applications

This Special Issue aims to be a compilation of new results in the areas of differential and difference Equations, covering boundary value problems, systems of differential and difference equations, as well as analytical and numerical methods. The…

### Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Neutrosophic logic and set are gaining significant attention in solving many real-life problems that involve uncertainty, impreciseness, vagueness, incompleteness, inconsistency, and indeterminacy. A number of new neutrosophic theories have been…

### Advances in Proof-Theoretic Semantics

This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of…

### The method of densities for non-isotropic Boolean models

This book deals with the Boolean model, a basic model of stochastic geometry for the description of porous structures like the pore space in sand stone. The main result is a formula which gives in two and three dimensions a series representation of…

### Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications

Metasurfaces, the two-dimensional analog of metamaterials, have attracted progressively increasing attention in recent years due to their planar configurations and, thus, ease of fabrication, while enabling an unprecedented control over optical…

### Measurement and Control of Charged Particle Beams

This advanced textbook and reference is the first comprehensive and systematic review of all methods used for the measurement, correction, and control of the beam dynamics of modern particle accelerators. Based on material presented in several…

### The Mathematics Education of Prospective Secondary Teachers Around the World

This volume shares and discusses significant new trends and developments in research and practices related to various aspects of preparing prospective secondary mathematics teachers from 2005–2015. It provides both an overview of the current…

### Mathematical Modelling in Engineering & Human Behaviour 2018

This book includes papers in cross-disciplinary applications of mathematical modelling: from medicine to linguistics, social problems, and more. Based on cutting-edge research, each chapter is focused on a different problem of modelling human…

### Mathematical Analysis and Applications

Investigations involving the theory and applications of mathematical analytic tools and techniques are remarkably wide-spread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, physical, chemical, engineering and statistical sciences. In this Special Issue,…

### Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations and Systems

Solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces (real or complex nonlinear equations, nonlinear systems, and nonlinear matrix equations, among others), is a non-trivial task that involves many areas of science and technology. Usually the solution is not…

### International Comparative Studies in Mathematics: Lessons for Improving Students’ Learning

This open access book examines the cultural and educational factors that influence how successfully students learn mathematics; focuses on international comparative studies as a means of generating theories and improving students’ learning; and…

### Interdisciplinary Mathematics Education

This book provides an essential introduction to the state-of the-art in interdisciplinary Mathematics Education. First, it begins with an outline of the field’s relevant historical, conceptual and theoretical backgrounds, what “discipline” means and…

### Information Geometry

This Special Issue of the journal Entropy, titled “Information Geometry I”, contains a collection of 17 papers concerning the foundations and applications of information geometry. Based on a geometrical interpretation of probability, information…

### Guided-Wave Optics

The topic of guided wave (GW) propagation comprises a vast research area overlapping with photonics, matter waves in macroscopic quantum media (ultracold gases of bosonic and fermionic atoms, condensates of quasiparticles, such as…

### Geometry and topology of wild translation surfaces

A translation surface is a two-dimensional manifold, equipped with a translation structure. It can be obtained by considering Euclidean polygons and identifying their edges via translations. The vertices of the polygons form singularities if the…

### Geometric Regularization in Bioluminescence Tomography

Bioluminescence tomography is a recent biomedical imaging technique which allows to study molecular and cellular activities in vivo. From a mathematical point of view, it is an ill-posed inverse source problem: the location and the intensity of a…

### Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making

This book contains the successful invited submissions to a Special Issue of Symmetry in the subject area of “Fuzzy Techniques for Decision Making”. We invited contributions addressing novel techniques and tools for decision making (e.g., group or…

### Fuzzy Mathematics

This book provides a timely overview of topics in fuzzy mathematics. It lays the foundation for further research and applications in a broad range of areas. It contains break-through analysis on how results from the many variations and extensions of…

### Fractional Order Systems

This book is focused on fractional order systems. Historically, fractional calculus has been recognized since the inception of regular calculus, with the first written reference dated in September 1695 in a letter from Leibniz to L’Hospital.…

### Fractional Differential Equations: Theory, Methods and Applications

Fractional calculus provides the possibility of introducing integrals and derivatives of an arbitrary order in the mathematical modelling of physical processes, and it has become a relevant subject with applications to various fields, such as…

### Fractional Calculus: Theory and Applications

Fractional calculus is allowing integrals and derivatives of any positive order (the term fractional is kept only for historical reasons). It can be considered a branch of mathematical physics that deals with integro-differential equations, where…

### Early Geometrical Thinking in the Environment of Patterns, Mosaics and Isometries

This book discusses the learning and teaching of geometry, with a special focus on kindergarten and primary education. It examines important new trends and developments in research and practice, and emphasizes theoretical, empirical and developmental…

### Dynamic risk management with Markov decision processes

An important tool in risk management is the implementation of risk measures. We study dynamic models where risk measures and dynamic risk measures can be applied. In particular, we solve various portfolio optimization problems and introduce a class…

### Differential Geometry

The present book contains 14 papers published in the Special Issue “Differential Geometry” of the journal Mathematics. They represent a selection of the 30 submissions. This book covers a variety of both classical and modern topics in differential…

### Current Trends in Symmetric Polynomials with their Applications

This Special Issue presents research papers on various topics within many different branches of mathematics, applied mathematics, and mathematical physics. Each paper presents mathematical theories, methods, and their application based on current and…

### The Craft of Fractional Modelling in Science and Engineering

This book is a result of the contributions of scientists involved in a Special Issue entitled “The Craft of Fractional Modelling in Science and Engineering” published by the journal Fractal and Fractional (MDPI). Most of the articles were published…

### Applied Analysis of Ordinary Differential Equations

One might say that ordinary differential equations (notably, in Isaac Newton’s analysis of the motion of celestial bodies) had a central role in the development of modern applied mathematics. This book is devoted to research articles which build upon…

### Algebraic Structures of Neutrosophic Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, or Neutrosophic Multisets ( 2 )

Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (, , ), where is an entity {i.e. element, concept, idea, theory, logical proposition, etc.}, is the opposite of , while is the neutral (or indeterminate) between them,…

### Algebraic Structures of Neutrosophic Triplets, Neutrosophic Duplets, or Neutrosophic Multisets

Neutrosophy (1995) is a new branch of philosophy that studies triads of the form (, , ), where is an entity {i.e. element, concept, idea, theory, logical proposition, etc.}, is the opposite of , while is the neutral (or indeterminate) between them,…

### Advances in Mechanical Problems of Functionally Graded Materials and Structures

The book deals with novel aspects and perspectives in functionally graded materials (FGMs), which are advanced engineering materials designed for a specific performance or function with spatial gradation in structure and/or composition. The…

### Observations and Theory of Short GRBs at the Dawn of the Gravitational Wave Era

The book starts with a review of the established facts on the numerical simulations of binary neutron star mergers and simulations of short GRB jets that highlights the issues that need to be revised and further clarified, as the need to understand…

### Emerging Advances in Petrophysics. Porous Media Characterization and Modeling of Multiphase Flow

Due to the influence of pore-throat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous…

### Wetlands and Water Framework Directive

This book compares the lessons learned from a wetland-perspective approach to the changing climate and the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) with regard to environmental conservation. Examples from Germany and Poland are discussed…

### Second Assessment of Climate Change for the Baltic Sea Basin

This book is an update of the first BACC assessment, published in 2008. It offers new and updated scientific findings in regional climate research for the Baltic Sea basin. These include climate changes since the last glaciation (approx. 12,000 years…

### Melting Hadrons, Boiling Quarks: From Hagedorn Temperature to Ultra-Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions at CERN: With a Tribute to Rolf Hagedorn

This book shows how the study of multi-hadron production phenomena in the years after the founding of CERN culminated in Hagedorn's pioneering idea of limiting temperature, leading on to the discovery of the quark-gluon plasma -- announced, in…

### Solar Particle Radiation Storms Forecasting and Analysis: The HESPERIA HORIZON 2020 Project and Beyond

Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting…

### Stark Broadening of Spectral Lines in Plasmas

Experimental and theoretical studies of Stark broadening of spectral lines in plasmas are the cornerstone of a large number of spectroscopic diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. As such, they are very important both fundamentally and…

### Plant Proteomic Research 2.0

Advancements in high-throughput “Omics” techniques have revolutionized plant molecular biology research. Proteomics offers one of the best options for the functional analysis of translated regions of the genome, generating a wealth of detailed…

### Plant Microbe Interaction 2017

200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms. [Plants interact with microbes in many different ways and on many different levels. The most…

### The Plant Stem: A Microscopic Aspect

This unique and attractive open access textbook combines the beauty of macroscopic pictures of plant stems with the corresponding colorfully stained images of anatomical micro-structures. In contrast to most botanical textbooks, it presents all the…

### Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

While the demand for crop products continues to increase strongly, agricultural productivity is threatened by various stress factors, often associated with global warming. To sustain and improve yield, it is necessary to understand how plants respond…

### Marine Anthropogenic Litter

This book describes how man-made litter, primarily plastic, has spread into the remotest parts of the oceans and covers all aspects of this pollution problem from the impacts on wildlife and human health to socio-economic and political issues. Marine…

### Building the Foundation: Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades: The 23rd ICMI Study

This twenty-third ICMI Study addresses for the first time mathematics teaching and learning in the primary school (and pre-school) setting, while also taking international perspectives, socio-cultural diversity and institutional constraints into…

### Interferometry and Synthesis in Radio Astronomy

The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part…

### Instructional Scaffolding in STEM Education: Strategies and Efficacy Evidence

This book uses meta-analysis to synthesize research on scaffolding and scaffolding-related interventions in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education. Specifically, the volume examines the extent to which study quality,…

### Uses of Technology in Upper Secondary Mathematics Education

This survey addresses the use of technology in upper secondary mathematics education from four points of view: theoretical analysis of epistemological and cognitive aspects of activity in new technology mediated learning environments, the changes…

### The Gene Ontology Handbook

This book provides a practical and self-contained overview of the Gene Ontology (GO), the leading project to organize biological knowledge on genes and their products across genomic resources. Written for biologists and bioinformaticians, it covers…

### Physical (A)Causality: Determinism, Randomness and Uncaused Events

This book addresses the physical phenomenon of events that seem to occur spontaneously and without any known cause. These are to be contrasted with events that happen in a (pre-)determined, predictable, lawful, and causal way. All our knowledge is…

### Empirical Research in Statistics Education

This ICME-13 Topical Survey provides a review of recent research into statistics education, with a focus on empirical research published in established educational journals and on the proceedings of important conferences on statistics education. It…

### Early Algebra: Research into its Nature, its Learning, its Teaching

This survey of the state of the art on research in early algebra traces the evolution of a relatively new field of research and teaching practice. With its focus on the younger student, aged from about 6 years up to 12 years, this volume reveals the…

### Diversity and Evolution of Butterfly Wing Patterns: An Integrative Approach

This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and…

### Current and Future Perspectives of Ethnomathematics as a Program

This survey on the modernity of ethnomathematics addresses numerous themes related to both ethnomathematics and mathematics education. It offers a broader view of mathematics, including ideas, procedures, concepts, processes, methods, and practices…

### Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering…

### Ship and Offshore Structure Design in Climate Change Perspective

This book summarizes results of longstanding research and scientific contributions from many projects and relevant working groups. It collects and evaluates wind and wave climate projections under changing climate having design needs and marine…

### Building the Foundation: Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades: The 23rd ICMI Study

This twenty-third ICMI Study addresses for the first time mathematics teaching and learning in the primary school (and pre-school) setting, while also taking international perspectives, socio-cultural diversity and institutional constraints into…

### Attitudes, Beliefs, Motivation and Identity in Mathematics Education: An Overview of the Field and Future Directions

This book records the state of the art in research on mathematics-related affect. It discusses the concepts and theories of mathematics-related affect along the lines of three dimensions. The first dimension identifies three broad categories of…

### Assessment in Mathematics Education: Large-Scale Assessment and Classroom Assessment

This book provides an overview of current research on a variety of topics related to both large-scale and classroom assessment. First, the purposes, traditions and principles of assessment are considered, with particular attention to those common to…

### Structural Control of Mineral Deposits. Theory and Reality

Structural Control"" remains a crucial point that frequently lacks in any scientific and/or economic analysis of ore deposits, whatever their type and class. The case of lode deposits is exemplary, although also other deposits, like breccia pipe,…

### Arctic Mineral Resources. Science and Technology

The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral and other natural resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium,…

### Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements: Current and Future Sources and Recycling

Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to our modern way of life, although potential primary and secondary sources of these elements and the economics of the REE sector remain somewhat poorly understood. This Special Issue focuses on furthering our…

### Current Challenges in Modeling Cellular Metabolism

Mathematical and computational models play an essential role in understanding the cellular metabolism. They are used as platforms to integrate current knowledge on a biological system and to systematically test and predict the effect of manipulations…

### Biological Networks

Networks of coordinated interactions among biological entities govern a myriad of biological functions that span a wide range of both length and time scales—from ecosystems to individual cells and from years to milliseconds. For these networks, the…

### Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals

The forming of metals through plastic deformation comprises a family of methods that produce components through the re-shaping of input stock, oftentimes with little waste. Therefore, forming is one of the most efficient and economical manufacturing…

### Crystal Dislocations: Their Impact on Physical Properties of Crystals

The proposed existence of the edge and screw dislocation in the 1930s, and the subsequent work showing that dislocation theory could explain the plastic deformation of crystals, represent an important step in developing our understanding of materials…

### Spin-Crossover Complexes

The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon originates from the intrinsic bistability of the d-electron configuration, created by the competition between ligand-field splitting and spin-pairing energies in a first coordination sphere of transition metal…

### Enhancing Soil Health to Mitigate Soil Degradation

Five of the top ten problems facing humanity (http://cnst.rice.edu/content.aspx?id=246) over the next 50 years (food, water, energy, environment and poverty) are directly related to the health of soil resources. Several different factors, including:…

### Dietary Supplements

We invite you to contribute to a Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Dietary Supplements”. The purpose of this Special Issue is to advance dietary supplement science by presenting commissioned overviews on four nutrients of particular current…

### Magnetism of Molecular Conductors

The study of the magnetic properties of molecular conductors has experienced, over the last few decades, a very significant evolution, comprising systems of increasing molecular complexity and moving towards multifunctional materials. In this…

### Bioinspired Catechol- Based Systems: Chemistry and Applications

Catechols are widely found in nature taking part in a variety of biological functions, ranging from the aqueous adhesion of marine organisms to the storage of transition metal ions. Catechol-based natural and biomimetic molecules have thus been the…

### On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos

This book covers aspects and achievements of the baryonic (star and gas) component of galaxy halos as presented at the successful conference “On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos”, held on the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, March…

### Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Emeritus Calvin H. Bartholomew in Anticipation of His 75th Birthday

This book recognizes the career of Professor Emeritus Calvin H. Bartholomew, who celebrated his 75th birthday in 2018, and his contributions to the science and engineering of heterogeneous catalysis, a field which improves daily life in countless,…

### Vitamin D and Human Health

Over the past decades, researchers have gathered data demonstrating that vitamin D and its metabolites possess activities far beyond the classic regulation of calcium–phosphate homeostasis. It is now well established that vitamin D is essential for…

### Early Algebra: Research into its Nature, its Learning, its Teaching

This survey of the state of the art on research in early algebra traces the evolution of a relatively new field of research and teaching practice. With its focus on the younger student, aged from about 6 years up to 12 years, this volume reveals the…

### Spin-Crossover Complexes

The spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon originates from the intrinsic bistability of the d-electron configuration, created by the competition between ligand-field splitting and spin-pairing energies in a first coordination sphere of transition metal…

### Asymmetric and Selective Biocatalysis

This Issue contains one communication, six articles, and two reviews. The communication from Paola Vitale et al. represents a work where whole cells were used as biocatalysts for the reduction of optically active chloroalkyl arylketones followed by a…

### Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan II, 2017

As a result of our call in 2014 for submissions to a Special Issue, Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan in Marine Drugs, we are now pleased to tell you that this issue has been published. Twenty high class papers were included in this issue, which…

### Bioinspired Catechol- Based Systems: Chemistry and Applications

Catechols are widely found in nature taking part in a variety of biological functions, ranging from the aqueous adhesion of marine organisms to the storage of transition metal ions. Catechol-based natural and biomimetic molecules have thus been the…

### Applications of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Tools in Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

Epidemiology is a discipline intended to systematically investigate, and ideally quantify, disease dynamics in populations (Perez, 2015). Epidemiological assessmentsmay be divided into four large areas, namely, (a) identification and characterization…

### Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials

This Special Issue "Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials" contains some of the latest developments in the field of small-scale contact mechanics for a wide range of materials and biological cells. The featured manuscript revealed a new ultra-high…

### Catalysis for the Conversion of Biomass and Its Derivatives

Biomass will play an important role in the future for the replacement of fossil sources for fuels and chemicals. Catalytic processes are required for the efficient conversion of biomass. The development of such processes and the understanding of the…

### Algebra in Cuneiform: Introduction to an Old Babylonian Geometrical Technique

his textbook analyzes a number of texts in “conformal translation,” that is, a translation in which the same Babylonian term is always translated in the same way and, more importantly, in which different terms are always translated differently.…

### Paris Climate Agreement: Beacon of Hope

This volume presents an Empirical Model of Global Climate developed by the authors and uses that model to show that global warming will likely remain below 2ºC, relative to preindustrial, throughout this century provided: a) both the unconditional…

### Plant Selection for Bioretention Systems and Stormwater Treatment Practices

As cities develop, more land is converted into impervious surfaces, which do not allow water to infiltrate. Careful urban planning is needed to ensure that the hydrologic cycle and water quality of the catchment areas are not affected. There are…

### The Cellular Automaton Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

This book presents the deterministic view of quantum mechanics developed by Nobel Laureate Gerard 't Hooft. Dissatisfied with the uncomfortable gaps in the way conventional quantum mechanics meshes with the classical world, 't Hooft has revived the…

### Observing Geohazards from Space

With a wide spectrum of imaging capabilities, Earth observation offers several opportunities for the geoscience community to map and monitor natural and human-induced Earth hazards from space. The objective of this book is to collect scientific…

### Mineralogy of Quartz and Silica Minerals

The present book reports recent contributions from research in the field of quartz and other silica minerals. The various forms of silica (SiO2) represent important constituents of the Earth crust and play a central role in the composition of…

### Mineral Surface Reactions at the Nanoscale

Reactions at mineral surfaces are central to all geochemical processes. As minerals comprise the rocks of the Earth, the processes occurring at the mineral–aqueous fluid interface control the evolution of the rocks and hence the structure of the…

### Computing Characterizations of Drugs for Ion Channels and Receptors Using Markov Models

Flow of ions through voltage gated channels can be represented theoretically using stochastic differential equations where the gating mechanism is represented by a Markov model. The flow through a channel can be manipulated using various drugs, and…

### Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems: TAIGA Concept

his book is the comprehensive volume of the TAIGA (“a great river ” in Japanese) project. Supported by the Japanese government, the project examined the hypothesis that the subseafloor fluid advection system (subseafloor TAIGA) can be categorized…

### Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals

Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological…

### Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals

Precious metals continue to have economic and sociocultural importance, as their usage evolves and diversifies over time. Today, the industrial application of precious metals is increasing with the development of scientific and technological…

### Environmental Leadership Capacity Building in Higher Education: Experience and Lessons from Asian Program for Incubation of Environmental Leaders

he Graduate Program in Sustainability Science under the Department of Urban Engineering of The University of Tokyo has been running an environmental leadership education program at the graduate student level since 2007 called the Asian Program for…

### Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book offers a concise, practice-oriented reference-guide to the field of ocean wave energy. The ten chapters highlight the key rules of thumb, address all the main technical engineering…

### Structural Control of Mineral Deposits. Theory and Reality

Structural Control"" remains a crucial point that frequently lacks in any scientific and/or economic analysis of ore deposits, whatever their type and class. The case of lode deposits is exemplary, although also other deposits, like breccia pipe,…

### Arctic Mineral Resources. Science and Technology

The Arctic zone of the Earth is a major source of mineral and other natural resources for the future development of science and technology. It contains a large supply of strategic mineral deposits, including rare earths, copper, phosphorus, niobium,…

### Criticality of the Rare Earth Elements: Current and Future Sources and Recycling

Rare earth elements (REE) are critical to our modern way of life, although potential primary and secondary sources of these elements and the economics of the REE sector remain somewhat poorly understood. This Special Issue focuses on furthering our…

### Magnetic Records of Extreme Geological Events

Recent advances in environmental magnetism offer the opportunity to link the magnetic signature of marine and continental rocks to the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic settings that controlled their formation or deposition, as well as to…

### Mathematical Modelling in Engineering & Human Behaviour 2018

This book includes papers in cross-disciplinary applications of mathematical modelling: from medicine to linguistics, social problems, and more. Based on cutting-edge research, each chapter is focused on a different problem of modelling human…

### Biological Potential and Medical Use of Secondary

Many macro and micro species, from terrestrial and aquatic environments, produce structurally unique compounds and, in many countries, still are the primary sources of medicines. In fact, secondary metabolites are an important source of…

### Multivariable Calculus

This book covers the standard material for a one-semester course in multivariable calculus. The topics include curves, differentiability and partial derivatives, multiple integrals, vector fields, line and surface integrals, and the theorems of…

### Turbulence: Numerical Analysis, Modelling and Simulation

he problem of accurate and reliable simulation of turbulent flows is a central and intractable challenge that crosses disciplinary boundaries. As the needs for accuracy increase and the applications expand beyond flows where extensive data is…

### Optimization in Control Applications

Mathematical optimization is the selection of the best element in a set with respect to a given criterion. Optimization has become one of the most-used tools in modern control theory for computing the control law, adjusting the controller parameters…

### Audio Signal Processing

Audio signal processing is a highly active research field where digital signal processing theory meets human sound perception and real-time programming requirements. It has a wide range of applications in computers, gaming, and music technology, to…

### Quantum Foundations. 90 Years of Uncertainty

We introduce the general class of symmetric two-qubit states guaranteeing the perfect correlation or anticorrelation of Alice and Bob outcomes whenever some spin observable is measured at both sites. We prove that, for all states from this class, the…

### Flood Forecasting Using Machine Learning Methods

Flood disasters have had a great impact on city development. Early flood warning systems (EFWS) are promising countermeasures against flood hazards and losses. Machine learning (ML) is the kernel for building a satisfactory EFWS. This paper first…

### Theory and Applications of Ordered Fuzzy Numbers: A Tribute to Professor Witold Kosiński

The subject of this chapter is fuzzy sets and the basic issues related to them. The first section discusses concepts of sets: classic and fuzzy, and presents various ways of describing fuzzy sets. The second section is dedicated to t-norms, s-norms,…

### Scaling of Differential Equations

Finding proper values of physical parameters in mathematical models is often quite a challenge. While many have gotten away with using just the mathematical symbols when doing science and engineering with pen and paper, the modern world of numerical…

### Wearable Electronics and Embedded Computing Systems

The application of wearable electronics in the biomedical research and commercial fields has

been gaining great interest over the last several decades. Small-sized, lightweight monitoring systems

with low-power consumption and, of course,…

been gaining great interest over the last several decades. Small-sized, lightweight monitoring systems

with low-power consumption and, of course,…

### Finite Difference Computing with Exponential Decay Models

Throughout industry and science it is common today to study nature or technological devices through models on a computer. With such models the computer acts as a virtual lab where experiments can be done in a fast, reliable, safe, and cheap way. In…

### Algorithms for Scheduling Problems

Optimal scheduling is an important area of operations research, as it has both theoretical and

practical aspects. It is clear that efficient algorithms are most desirable for practical applications,

since most real-world scheduling problems have…

practical aspects. It is clear that efficient algorithms are most desirable for practical applications,

since most real-world scheduling problems have…

### Dietary Bioactives and Bone Health

: The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly…

### Habitats and Biota of the Gulf of Mexico: Before the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

The Gulf of Mexico is the ninth largest body of water in the world, and it is recognized as 1 of 64 Large Marine Ecosystems by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (Kumpf et al. 1999). Economically and ecologically the Gulf…

### Progress in Ecological Stoichiometry

Ecological stoichiometry concerns the way that the elemental composition of organisms shapes their ecology. It deals with balance and imbalanced elemental ratios and how that affects organism growth, nutrient cycling, and the interactions with the…

### A Celebration of the Ties That Bind Us: Connections Between Actuarial Science and Mathematical Finance

In the nearly thirty years since Hans Buhlmann (Buhlmann (1987)) set out the notion of the Actuary of the Third Kind, the connection between Actuarial Science (AS) and Mathematical Finance (MF) has been continually reinforced. As siblings in the…

### Causes and Consequences of Species Diversity in Forest Ecosystems

What are the causes and consequences of species diversity in forested ecosystems, and how is this species diversity being affected by rapid environmental and climatic change, movement of invertebrate and vertebrate herbivores into new biogeographic…

### Catalysis for Low Temperature Fuel Cells

Today, the development of active and stable catalysts still represents a challenge to be overcome in

the research ﬁeld of low-temperature fuel cells. Operation at low temperatures offers great advantages, such as quick start-up and longer stability,…

the research ﬁeld of low-temperature fuel cells. Operation at low temperatures offers great advantages, such as quick start-up and longer stability,…

### Carotid Body: A New Target for Rescuing Neural Control of Cardiorespiratory Balance in Disease

The carotid body (CB) is the main arterial chemoreceptor in charge of adjusting ventilatory and cardiovascular function during changes in arterial blood gases. Regardless this essential function, the CB has been implicated in the sensing of other…

### Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling in Forest Soils

Physicochemical and biotic factors inﬂuence the binding and dispersivity of soil particles,

and thus control soil macroaggregate formation and stability. Although soil pH inﬂuences dispersivity,

it is usually relatively constant within a site, and…

and thus control soil macroaggregate formation and stability. Although soil pH inﬂuences dispersivity,

it is usually relatively constant within a site, and…

### Quantitative Problem Solving in Natural Resources

This text is intended to support courses that bridge the divide between mathematics typically encountered in U.S. high school curricula and the practical problems that natural resource students might engage with in their disciplinary coursework and…

### University Physics I: Classical Mechanics

This is a “minimalist” textbook for a first semester of university, calculus-based physics, covering classical mechanics (including one chapter on mechanical waves, but excluding fluids), plus a brief introduction to thermodynamics. The presentation…

### Astronomy for Educators

Astronomy for Educators provides new and accomplished K-12 instructors with concepts and projects for low-cost, high-impact STEM classroom instruction that is built around the National Academies National Research Council's K-12 Framework for Science…

### Magnetic Records of Extreme Geological Events

Life on Earth was punctuated by several dramatic paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic changes leading to mass extinction linked to continental flood basalts (CFBs) and large igneous provinces (LIPs), global oceanic anoxic events (OAE), rapid climate…

### The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture

Agriculture has suffered enormous changes since the first human attempts to domesticate plants to obtain productive varieties which could become a constant source of food. Many developments have shaped current agricultural systems, especially those…

### Nitrification in Fixed Bed Reactors Treating Saline Wastewater

Two fixed bed reactors for nitrification with either polyethylene/clay sinter lamellas (FBR A) or porous ceramic rings (FBR B) were continously run for treating synthetic saline wastewater. Seawater from Hafen Büsum was used as an inoculums. The…

### Advanced Numerical Methods in Applied Sciences

The generalized Schur algorithm (GSA) allows computing well-known matrix decompositions,

such as QR and LU factorizations [1]. In particular, if the involved matrix is structured, i.e., Toeplitz, block-Toeplitz or Sylvester, the GSA computes the R…

such as QR and LU factorizations [1]. In particular, if the involved matrix is structured, i.e., Toeplitz, block-Toeplitz or Sylvester, the GSA computes the R…

### Agrobacterium biology and its application to transgenic plant production

The broad host range pathogenic bacterium

Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied

as a model system to understand horizontal gene

flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells,

and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium…

Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied

as a model system to understand horizontal gene

flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells,

and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium…

### Systems Biology Approaches to Understanding the Cause and Treatment of Heart, Lung, Blood, and Sleep Disorders

Development of powerful new highthroughput

technologies for probing the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome is driving the rapid

acquisition of information on the function of molecular systems. The importance of these

achievements cannot be…

technologies for probing the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome is driving the rapid

acquisition of information on the function of molecular systems. The importance of these

achievements cannot be…

### Demystifying Climate Models: A Users Guide to Earth System Models

The book series Earth Systems Data and Models publishes state-of-the-art research and technologies aimed at understanding processes and interactions in the earth system. A special emphasis is given to theory, methods, and tools used in earth,…

### Bacterial Exotoxins: how bacteria fight the immune system

Bacterial pathogenicity factors are

functionally diverse. They may facilitate

the adhesion and colonization of bacteria,

influence the host immune response,

assist spreading of the bacterium by e.g.

evading recognition by immune cells, or

allow…

functionally diverse. They may facilitate

the adhesion and colonization of bacteria,

influence the host immune response,

assist spreading of the bacterium by e.g.

evading recognition by immune cells, or

allow…

### Bacterial pathogens in the non-clinical environment

When thinking about bacterial pathogens, most will consider their interaction with humans. Nevertheless,

many pathogens aﬀecting humans will not be transmitted directly from one individual to

another but will rather come from or transit through the…

many pathogens aﬀecting humans will not be transmitted directly from one individual to

another but will rather come from or transit through the…

### B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism

Folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin play a key role as coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism which, in turn, is essential for a broad range of fundamental physiological processes, including RNA and DNA synthesis, cell division, tissue growth…

### Conceptual Physics.

Even before history began, people must already have noticed certain facts about the sky. The sun and moon both rise in the east and set in the west. Another fact that can be settled to a fair degree of accuracy using the naked eye is that the…

The Adventure of Physics

Volume VI . The Strand Model –

A Speculation on Unification

Look at what happens around us. A child that smiles, a nightingale that sings, aily that opens: all move. Every shadow, even an immobile one, is due to moving

ight. Every mountain is kept in place by moving electrons. Every star owes its formation…

ight. Every mountain is kept in place by moving electrons. Every star owes its formation…

### Well seismic surveying and acoustic logging

In the geophysics of oil exploration and reservoir studies, the seismic method is the most commonly used method to obtain a subsurface model. This method plays an increasingly important role in soil investigations for geotechnical, hydrogeological…

### Seismic Imaging. A practical approach

In the geophysics of oil exploration and reservoir studies, the surface seismic method is the most commonly used method to obtain a subsurface model in 2 or 3 dimensions. This method plays an increasingly important role in soil investigations…

### Introduction to Louis Michel’s lattice geometry through group action

This chapter describes the outline of the book and explains the interrelations between different chapters and appendices. The specificity of this book is an intensive use of group action ideas and terminology when discussing physical and mathematical…

### Nuclear physics for cultural heritage

The importance of cultural heritage for mankind

was once well expressed by the Austrian artist

Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928-2000) when

he said: “If we do not honour our past we lose our future. If we destroy our roots we cannot grow.” This…

was once well expressed by the Austrian artist

Friedensreich Hundertwasser (1928-2000) when

he said: “If we do not honour our past we lose our future. If we destroy our roots we cannot grow.” This…

### Earth's climate response to a changing Sun

The Earth’s atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that surrounds our planet, consists of a mixture of gases, extending from the surface of the Earth to the edge of

space and tied to the Earth mainly by its gravitational force, and partly by the…

space and tied to the Earth mainly by its gravitational force, and partly by the…

### An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers

This book, which presupposes familiarity only with the most elementary concepts of arithmetic (divisibility properties, greatest common divisor, etc.), is an expanded version of a series of lectures for graduate students on elementary number theory.…

### Quantitative Ecology: A New Unified Approach

Quantitative Ecology introduces and discusses the principles of ecology from populations to ecosystems including human populations, disease, exotic organisms, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity and global dynamics. The book also reformulates and…

### Statistical Thinking for the 21st Century

Statistical thinking is a way of understanding a complex world by describing it in relatively simple terms that nonetheless capture essential aspects of its structure, and that also provide us some idea of how uncertain we are about our knowledge.…

### Introduction to Financial Mathematics Concepts and Computational Methods

Introduction to Financial Mathematics: Concepts and Computational Methods serves as a primer in financial mathematics with a focus on conceptual understanding of models and problem solving. It includes the mathematical background needed for risk…

### Tea Time Numerical Analysis

Numerical methods are designed to approximate one thing or another. Sometimes roots, sometimes derivatives or definite integrals, or curves, or solutions of differential equations. As numerical methods produce only approximations to these things, it…

### Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology

Motivated by questions in cosmology, the open-content text Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology uses Mobius transformations to develop hyperbolic, elliptic, and Euclidean geometry - three possibilities for the global geometry of the…

### Unfolding the Mystery of Life, Biology Lab Manual for Non-Science Majors

This laboratory manual is intended for use in a biology laboratory course taken by non-science majors, pre-biology, and pre-allied health majors. Laboratory exercises provide students with experience in basic laboratory skills, gathering and…

### Teaching Mathematics at Secondary Level

Teaching Mathematics is nothing less than a mathematical manifesto. Arising in response to a limited National Curriculum, and engaged with secondary schooling for those aged 11 ̶ 14 (Key Stage 3) in particular, this handbook for teachers will help…

### Introduction to Oceanography

There are many reasons why people study oceanography. An understanding of ocean processes is obviously vital to oceanographers, marine biologists, or environmental scientists. However, there are numerous other scientific fields where the oceans play…

### The Essence of Mathematics Through Elementary Problems

The Essence of Mathematics consists of a sequence of 270 problems – with commentary and full solutions. The reader is assumed to have a reasonable grasp of school mathematics. More importantly, s/he should want to understand something of mathematics…

### Virtuous Waters : Mineral Springs, Bathing, and Infrastructure in Mexico

Virtuous Waters is a pathbreaking and innovative study of bathing, drinking and other everyday engagements with a wide range of waters across five centuries in Mexico. Casey Walsh uses political ecology to bring together an analysis of shifting…

### Mountain, Water, Rock, God . Understanding Kedarnath in the Twenty-First Century

In Mountain, Water, Rock, God, Luke Whitmore situates the disastrous flooding that fell on the Hindu Himalayan shrine of Kedarnath in 2013 within a broader religious and ecological context. Whitmore explores the longer story of this powerful realm of…

### Thermodynamics and Chemistry

Thermodynamics and Chemistry is designed primarily as a textbook for a one-semester course in classical chemical thermodynamics at the graduate or undergraduate level. It can also serve as a supplementary text and thermodynamics reference source.

### BUSINESS MATH: A Step-By-Step Handbook

Business Mathematics was written to meet the needs of a twenty-first century student. It takes a systematic approach to helping students learn how to think and centers on a structured process termed the PUPP Model (Plan, Understand, Perform, and…

### First Semester in Numerical Analysis with Julia

First Semester in Numerical Analysis with Julia presents the theory and methods, together with the implementation of the algorithms using the Julia programming language (version 1.1.0). The book covers computer arithmetic, root-finding, numerical…

### An Introduction to Psychological Statistics

We are constantly bombarded by information, and finding a way to filter that information in an objective way is crucial to surviving this onslaught with your sanity intact. This is what statistics, and logic we use in it, enables us to do. Through…

### Adult Literacy Fundamentals Mathematics: Book 1

This is book one in a six-book series on fundamental mathematics for adult learners. These books include glossaries, self tests, practice requests, grades records, and unit tests. Ancillary Resources include the Instructor's Manual.

### Mechanics

This is a calculus-based book meant for the first semester of a first year survey course taken by engineering and physical science majors. It has a traditional order of topics whereby force is discussed before energy. It is divided into 17 chapters…

### Mathematics for Elementary Teachers

This book will help you to understand elementary mathematics more deeply, gain facility with creating and using mathematical notation, develop a habit of looking for reasons and creating mathematical explanations, and become more comfortable…

### GENERAL BIOLOGY II: SURVEY OF MOLECULAR

LIFE AND GENETICS

BI102A is a survey course that introduces the discipline of molecular biology and genetics, exploring topics including cell division, protein production, inheritance and gene regulation. This book focuses on putting those topics into an appropriate…

### General Biology I

BI101 Course Description: Adaptations of BI101 vary in theme. BI101A is a survey course that

introduces the discipline of cellular biology, exploring topics including the cellular basis of life, cell

structure and function and the metabolic…

introduces the discipline of cellular biology, exploring topics including the cellular basis of life, cell

structure and function and the metabolic…

### Slurry Transport: Fundamentals, A Historical Overview & The Delft Head Loss & Limit Deposit Velocity Framework 2nd Edition

In dredging, the hydraulic transport of solids is one of the most important processes. Since the 50’s many researchers have tried to create a physical mathematical model in order to predict the head losses in slurry transport. One can think of the…

### World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization

World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization is designed for students to experience and study as much of the world as possible within a limited amount of time. It gives students the fundamental concepts and the latest data regarding…

### Environmental Biology

Environmental Biology is a free and open textbook that enables students to develop a nuanced

understanding of today’s most pressing environmental issues. This text helps students grasp the scientific

foundation of environmental topics so they can…

understanding of today’s most pressing environmental issues. This text helps students grasp the scientific

foundation of environmental topics so they can…

### Linear Regression Using R: An Introduction to Data Modeling

Linear Regression Using R: An Introduction to Data Modeling presents one of the fundamental data modeling techniques in an informal tutorial style. Learn how to predict system outputs from measured data using a detailed step-by-step process to…

### Prealgebra

Prealgebra is designed to meet scope and sequence requirements for a one-semester prealgebra course. The book’s organization makes it easy to adapt to a variety of course syllabi. The text introduces the fundamental concepts of algebra while…

### Topics in Applied Mathematics

The concepts and basic topics in elementary Linear Algebra and Calculus are reviewed and generalized to Linear Analysis in this first unit. In particular, the dot product, the vector space of R 2(that is, the x − y plane in Plane Geometry), and…

### An Introductory Course in Elementary Number Theory

Integers are the building blocks of the theory of numbers. This chapter contains somewhat very simple and obvious observations starting with properties of integers and yet the proofs behind those observations are not as simple. In this chapter

we…

we…

### Linear Algebra with Applications. Open Edition

This textbook is an introduction to the ideas and techniques of linear algebra for first- or second-year

students with a working knowledge of high school algebra. The contents have enough flexibility to present

a traditional introduction to the…

students with a working knowledge of high school algebra. The contents have enough flexibility to present

a traditional introduction to the…

### Linear Algebra, Theory And Applications

This is a book on linear algebra and matrix theory. While it is self contained, it will work best for those who have already had some exposure to linear algebra. It is also assumed that the reader has had calculus. Some optional topics require more…

### Mathematical Analysis. Volume I

This text is an outgrowth of lectures given at the University of Windsor, Canada. One of our main objectives is updating the undergraduate analysis as a rigorous postcalculus course. While such excellent books as Dieudonn´e’s Foundations of Modern…

### Elementary Linear Algebra

This is an introduction to linear algebra. The main part of the book features row operations and everything is done in terms of the row reduced echelon form and specific algorithms. At the end, the more abstract notions of vector spaces and linear…

### APEX Pre Calculus

This text was written as a prequel to the APEXCalculus series, a three–volume series on Calculus. This text is not intended to fully prepare students with all of the mathematical knowledge they need to tackle Calculus, rather it is de-signed to…

### Quantum description of light, Part 2

In this lecture, the professor discussed fluctuations and noise, and the single photon.

### Quantum description of light, Part 1

In this lecture, the professor discussed single mode light, thermal states, coherent states

### Introduction to Atomic Physics

This lecture provides a general overview of atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics.

### An Introduction to Matlab and Mathcad

This textbook, or really a “coursebook” for a college freshman-level class, has been updated for Spring 2014 and provides an introduction to programming and problem solving using both Matlab and Mathcad. We provide a balanced selection of…

### Fundamentals of Matrix Algebra

A college (or advanced high school) level text dealing with the basic principles of matrix and linear algebra. It covers solving systems of linear equations, matrix arithmetic, the determinant, eigenvalues, and linear transformations. Numerous…

### College Physics for AP® Courses

The AP Physics Collection is a free, turnkey solution for your AP® Physics course, brought to you through a collaboration between OpenStax and Rice Online Learning. The integrated collection features the OpenStax College Physics for AP® Courses text,…

### GRADE 12 PHYSICAL SCIENCES.

VERSION 1 CAPS

This book deals with the physical sciences - physics and chemistry. All the sciences are based in the use of

experiment and testing to understand the world around us better. The scientific method requires us to constantly re-examine our…

experiment and testing to understand the world around us better. The scientific method requires us to constantly re-examine our…

### GRADE 11 PHYSICAL SCIENCES.

VERSION 1 CAPS

In grade 10 you learnt about vectors in one dimension. Now we will take these concepts further and learn about vectors in two dimensions as well as components of vectors. As a very short recap, a vector has both a magnitude and a direction. There are…

### Everything Science : Grade 10 Physical Science.

Version 1 – CAPS

In the physical sciences there are many skills that you need to learn. These include working with units, basic mathematics skills and laboratory skills. In this chapter we will revise some of these skills that you should know before starting to study…

### Microbiology

Microbiology covers the scope and sequence requirements for a single-semester microbiology course for non-majors. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications for careers in allied health. The pedagogical features…

### Algebra and Mathematics. Explained with easy to understand 3D animations.

Explains variables, systems of equations, Cartesian coordinates, and many other concepts. Fun and educational for all ages.

### Properties and Chemistry of Benzene | Chemistry for All | The Fuse School

This video is part of 'Chemistry for All' - a Chemistry Education project by our Charity Fuse Foundation - the organisation behind The Fuse School. These videos can be used in a flipped classroom model or as a revision aid. Find our other Chemistry…

### Trigonometry

This trigonometry textbook is different than other trigonometry books in that it is free to download, and the reader is expected to do more than read the book and is expected to study the material in the book by working out examples rather than just…

### Precalculus

From the preface, "These are notes for a course in precalculus, as it is taught at New York City College of Technology - CUNY (where it is offered under the course number MAT 1375). Our approach is calculator based. For this, we will use the…

### Elementary Differential Equations

Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems is written for students in science, engineering, and mathematics who have completed calculus through partial differentiation. If your syllabus includes Chapter 10 (Linear Systems of…

### Applied Calculus

Calculus was first developed more than three hundred years ago by Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz to help them describe and understand the rules overning the motion of planets and moons. Since then, thousands of other men and women have…

### Basic Arithmetic Workbook

This workbook was created through the efforts of three instructors at Scottsdale Community College in Scottsdale, Arizona, has been used by thousands of students, and is continually improved. This workbook contains have lessons that were carefully…

### Contemporary Calculus I . For the students

This is a textbook for differential calculus with explanations, examples, worked solutions, problem sets and answers. It has been reviewed by calculus instructors and class-tested by them and the author.

Topics are typically introduced by way of…

Topics are typically introduced by way of…

### Laboratory Manual for Introductory Geology

The average introductory geology student’s perception of geology normally involves the memorization of rocks and discussions of natural disasters, but Geology contains so much more. Geology is the study of our planet, which is vital to our everyday…

### Solving Linear Equations - Basic Algebra Shortcut Tricks!

This algebra video tutorial shows you how to solve linear equations that contain fractions and variables on both sides of the equation. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems for you to work on.

### Chemistry: Atoms First 2e

Chemistry: Atoms First 2e is a peer-reviewed, openly licensed introductory textbook produced through a collaborative publishing partnership between OpenStax and the University of Connecticut and UConn Undergraduate Student Government Association.…

### Chemistry 2e

Chemistry 2e is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of the two-semester general chemistry course. The textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts…

### Linear Regression Using R: An Introduction to Data Modeling

Linear Regression Using R: An Introduction to Data Modeling presents one of the fundamental data modeling techniques in an informal tutorial style. Learn how to predict system outputs from measured data using a detailed step-by-step process to…

### Trigonometry

This trigonometry textbook is different than other trigonometry books in that it is free to download, and the reader is expected to do more than read the book and is expected to study the material in the book by working out examples rather than just…

### Ordinary Differential Equations

This book consists of ten weeks of material given as a course on ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for second year mathematics majors at the University of Bristol. It is the first course devoted solely to differential equations that these…

Linear Algebra

We believe the entire book can be taught in twenty five 50-minute lectures to a sophomore audience that has been exposed to a one year calculus course. Vector calculus is useful, but not necessary preparation for this book, which attempts to be…

### Lies, Damned Lies, or Statistics: How to Tell the Truth with Statistics

Mathematical definitions should be perfectly precise because they do not describe something which is observed out there in the world, since such descriptive definitions might have fuzzy edges. In biology, for example, whether a virus is considered…

### Precalculus

Precalculus is adaptable and designed to fit the needs of a variety of precalculus courses. It is a comprehensive text that covers more ground than a typical one- or two-semester college-level precalculus course. The content is organized by…

### Statistics Using Technology

You are exposed to statistics regularly. If you are a sports fan, then you have the statistics for your favorite player. If you are interested in politics, then you look at the polls to see how people feel about certain issues or candidates. If you…

### Elementary Algebra Textbook

The Mayans used arithmetic to make astronomical computations, and developed the concept of zero over 2,000 years ago. The word “arithmetic” is derived from the Greek word arithmos (translated as

“number”). It is the oldest and most elementary branch…

“number”). It is the oldest and most elementary branch…

### LINEAR ALGEBRA

This book helps students to master the material of a standard US undergraduate first course in Linear Algebra. The material is standard in that the subjects covered are Gaussian reduction, vector spaces, linear maps, determinants, and eigenvalues and…

### Elementary Differential Equations

In order to apply mathematical methods to a physical or “real life” problem, we must formulate the problem in mathematical terms; that is, we must construct a mathematical model for the problem. Many

physical problems concern relationships between…

physical problems concern relationships between…

### Laboratory Exercises in Microbiology: Discovering the Unseen World Through Hands-On Investigation

The exercises in this laboratory manual are designed to engage students in hand-on activities that reinforce their understanding of the microbial world. Topics covered include: staining and microscopy, metabolic testing, physical and chemical control…

### Human Biology

This textbook has been created with several goals in mind: accessibility, customization, and student engagement—all while encouraging students toward high levels of academic scholarship. Students will find that this textbook offers a strong…

### BASIC CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

3e: WHAT WE KNOW AND HOW WE

FOUND OUT

A grasp of the logic and practice of science is essential to understand the rest of the world around us. To that end, the CMB3e iText (like earlier editions) remains focused on experimental support for what we know about cell and molecular biology,…

### Biology 2e

Biology is a science, but what exactly is science? What does the study of biology share with other scientific

disciplines? We can define science (from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) as knowledge that covers general truths or the operation…

disciplines? We can define science (from the Latin scientia, meaning “knowledge”) as knowledge that covers general truths or the operation…

### Biology for AP® Courses

Biology for AP® Courses covers the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester Advanced Placement® biology course. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens.…

### Anatomy & Physiology

Human anatomy is the scientific study of the body’s structures. Some of these structures are very small and can only be observed and analyzed with the assistance of a microscope. Other larger structures can readily be seen, manipulated, measured, and…

### Concepts of Biology

Concepts of Biology is designed for the typical introductory biology course for nonmajors, covering standard scope and sequence requirements. The text includes interesting applications and conveys the major themes of biology, with content that is…

### A First Course in LINEAR ALGEBRA an Open Text

A First Course in Linear Algebra presents an introduction to the fascinating subject of linear algebra for students who have a reasonable understanding of basic algebra. Major topics of linear algebra are presented in detail, with proofs of important…

### Analytical Chemistry 2.1

Chemistry is the study of matter, including its composition, its structure, its physical properties,

and its reactivity. Although there are many ways to study chemistry, traditionally we divide it into ve areas: organic chemistry, inorganic…

and its reactivity. Although there are many ways to study chemistry, traditionally we divide it into ve areas: organic chemistry, inorganic…

### Elementary Algebra

Elementary Algebra is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content…

### College Algebra

It’s a cold day in Antarctica. In fact, it’s always a cold day in Antarctica. Earth’s southernmost continent, Antarctica experiences the coldest, driest, and windiest conditions known. The coldest temperature ever recorded, over one hundred degrees…

### ACTIVE CALCULUS

In Active Calculus, we endeavor to actively engage students in learning the subject through an activity-driven approach in which the vast majority of the examples are completed by students. Where many texts present a general theory of calculus…

### Calculus

Gilbert Strang's clear, direct style and detailed, intensive explanations make this textbook ideal as both a course companion and for self-study. Single variable and multivariable calculus are covered in depth. Key examples of the application of…

### Physical Science Laboratory

Investigations

For many people, it is difficult in today’s world to make a guess. People tend to prefer to look up the answer rather than use experience to attempt an answer. However, scientific theories and laws often begin with a guess based on logic and…

### General Biology : Bisoci 100 manual Laboratory

The purpose of creating this custom lab manual for BioSci 100 was to provide our students with a high quality, low cost learning resource. This project would not have

been possible without the dedication and commitment of the faculty and staff in…

been possible without the dedication and commitment of the faculty and staff in…

### Microbiology

Welcome to the wonderful world of microbiology! Yay! So. What is microbiology? If we break the

word down it translates to “the study of small life,” where the small life refers to microorganisms or

microbes. But who are the microbes? And how small…

word down it translates to “the study of small life,” where the small life refers to microorganisms or

microbes. But who are the microbes? And how small…

### The Adventure of Physics - Vol. VI: The Strand Model - A Speculation on Unification

his book is written for anybody who is intensely curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and empty space move? The answer leads to many adventures, and this book presents one of the best of them:…

### The Adventure of Physics - Vol. V: Motion Inside Matter - Pleasure, Technology, and Stars

This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how bodies, images and empty space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best adventures about the motion inside people, inside animals, and…

### The Adventure of Physics - Vol. III: Light, Charges, and Brains

This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the adventures one encounters when exploring everything…

### The Adventure of Physics - Vol. II: Relativity

This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and empty space move leads to many adven- tures. This volume presents the best of them in the domains of relativity and…

### The Adventure of Physics - Vol. I: Fall, Flow, and Heat

This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Curiosity about how people, animals, things, images and space move leads to many adventures. This volume presents the best of them in the domain of everyday life.

Carefully…

Carefully…

### The Adventure of Physics - Vol. IV: The Quantum of Change

This book is written for anybody who is curious about nature and motion. Have you ever asked: Why do people, animals, things, images and space move? The answer leads to many adventures; this volume presents those due to the discovery that there is a…

### Body Physics: Motion to Metabolism

Body Physics was designed to meet the objectives of a

one-term high school or freshman level course in

physical science, typically designed to provide nonscience majors and undeclared students with exposure

to the most basic principles in physics…

one-term high school or freshman level course in

physical science, typically designed to provide nonscience majors and undeclared students with exposure

to the most basic principles in physics…

### Microbiology: A Laboratory Experience

As a group of organisms that are too small to see and best known for being agents of disease and death, microbes are not always appreciated for the numerous supportive and positive contributions they make to the living world. Designed to support a…

### Trigonometry

The precursors to what we study today as Trigonometry had their origin in ancient Mesopotamia, Greece and India. These cultures used the concepts of angles and lengths as an aid to understanding the movements of the heavenly bodies in the night sky.…

### Chemical Process Dynamics and Controls

Process controls is a mixture between the statistics and engineering discipline that deals with the mechanism, architectures, and algorithms for controlling a process. Some examples of controlled processes are:

•Controlling the temperature of a…

•Controlling the temperature of a…

### Calculus -- The foundation of modern science

Easy to understand explanation of integrals and derivatives using 3D animations.

### Elementary Algebra

Elementary Algebra is a work text that covers the traditional topics studied in a modern elementary algebra course. Use of this book will help the student develop the insight and intuition necessary to master algebraic techniques and manipulative…

### Logaritma

Open Educational Resource (OER) Unsyiah adalah satu satu Portal yang dikembangkan oleh Perpustakaan Universitas Syiah Kuala. OER Unsyiah berbasis Open Acces untuk siapa saja dan di mana saja. Bahkan Kami juga akan menerima kontribusi yang ingin ikut…

### Genetika dan Sel

Open Educational Resource (OER) Unsyiah adalah satu satu Portal yang dikembangkan oleh Perpustakaan Universitas Syiah Kuala. OER Unsyiah berbasis Open Acces untuk siapa saja dan di mana saja. Bahkan Kami juga akan menerima kontribusi yang ingin ikut…

### The Environment in the Age of the Internet

"How do we talk about the environment? Does this communication reveal and construct meaning? Is the environment expressed and foregrounded in the new landscape of digital media? The Environment in the Age of the Internet is an interdisciplinary…

### Landscape in the Longue Duree

Pebbles are usually found only on the beach, in the liminal space between land and sea. But what happens when pebbles extend inland and create a ridge brushing against the sky? Landscape in the Longue Durée is a 4,000 year history of pebbles. It…

### Turn on the light on science

"Scientists deserve public recognition. The ways that they are depicted, however, are severely limited in physical and personal traits, helping to establish and enhance stereotypes under the general title of ‘scientist’. These stereotypes range from…

### DNA

In the DNA double helix, two strands attach via hydrogen bonds between the bases of the component nucleotides.

### Other Important Lipids

(a) Phospholipids are composed of two fatty acids, glycerol, and a phosphate group. (b) Sterols are ring-shaped lipids. Shown here is cholesterol. (c) Prostaglandins are derived from unsaturated fatty acids. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) includes hydroxyl…

### Triglycerides

Triglycerides are composed of glycerol attached to three fatty acids via dehydration synthesis. Notice that glycerol gives up a hydrogen atom, and the carboxyl groups on the fatty acids each give up a hydroxyl group.

### Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides can contain a few to a thousand or more monosaccharides. Three are important to the body:

Starches are polymers of glucose. They occur in long chains called amylose or branched chains called amylopectin, both of which are…

Starches are polymers of glucose. They occur in long chains called amylose or branched chains called amylopectin, both of which are…

### Disaccharides

A disaccharide is a pair of monosaccharides. Disaccharides are formed via dehydration synthesis, and the bond linking them is referred to as a glycosidic bond (glyco- = “sugar”). Three disaccharides are important to humans. These are sucrose,…

### Monosaccharides

A monosaccharide is a monomer of carbohydrates. Five monosaccharides are important in the body. Three of these are the hexose sugars, so called because they each contain six atoms of carbon. These are glucose, fructose, and galactose.

The remaining…

The remaining…

### Acids and Bases

(a) In aqueous solution, an acid dissociates into hydrogen ions (H+) and anions. Nearly every molecule of a strong acid dissociates, producing a high concentration of H+. (b) In aqueous solution, a base dissociates into hydroxyl ions (OH–) and…

### The Periodic Table of the Elements

Visit this website to view the periodic table. In the periodic table of the elements, elements in a single column have the same number of electrons that can participate in a chemical reaction. These electrons are known as “valence electrons.” For…

### Underground Water Impact Report for the Surat Cumulative Management Area

The Surat Underground Water Impact Report forms part of the regulatory framework for managing the impacts of this groundwater extraction.

### My Math GPS: Elementary Algebra Guided Problem Solving (2016 Edition)

My Math GPS: Elementary Algebra Guided Problem Solving is a textbook that aligns to the CUNY Elementary Algebra Learning Objectives that are tested on the CUNY Elementary Algebra Final Exam (CEAFE). This book contextualizes arithmetic skills into…

### Proofs and Concepts: The Fundamentals of Abstract Mathematics

This free undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to proofs, logic, sets, functions, and other fundamental topics of abstract mathematics. It is designed to be the textbook for a bridge course that introduces undergraduates to abstract…

### Statistical Inference For Everyone

This is a new approach to an introductory statistical inference textbook, motivated by probability theory as logic. It is targeted to the typical Statistics 101 college student, and covers the topics typically covered in the first semester of such a…

### The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

The Basics of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry by David W. Ball, John W. Hill, and Rhonda J. Scott is for the one-semester General, Organic and Biological Chemistry course. The authors designed this textbook from the ground up to meet the…

### The Simple Math of Writing Well: Writing for the 21st Century

Writing guides abound, but The Simple Math of Writing Well is one of a kind. Readers will find its practical approach affirming, encouraging, and informative, and its focus on the basics of linguistic structure releases 21st-century writers to…

### Physics Volume 2

University Physics is designed for the two- or three-semester calculus-based physics course. The text has been developed to meet the scope and sequence of most university physics courses and provides a foundation for a career in mathematics, science,…

### Physics Volume 1

University Physics is designed for the two- or three-semester calculus-based physics course. The text has been developed to meet the scope and sequence of most university physics courses and provides a foundation for a career in mathematics, science,…

### Living with Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest

In this expanded new edition of Living with Earthquakes, Robert Yeats, a leading authority on earthquakes in California and the Pacific Northwest, describes the threat posed by the Cascadia Subduction Zone, a great earthquake fault which runs for…

### Linear Algebra, Theory And Applications

This is a book on linear algebra and matrix theory. While it is self contained, it will work best for those who have already had some exposure to linear algebra. It is also assumed that the reader has had calculus. Some optional topics require more…

### Light and Matter

This is an introductory text intended for a one-year introductory course of the type typically taken by biology majors, or for AP Physics B. Algebra and trig are used, and there are optional calculus-based sections.

### Key Elements of Green Chemistry

This document is a collaborative student work, comprising a directory of resources about mathematics and technology for kindergarten through fifth grade. This resource was created with the support of an ALG Textbook Transformation Grant. Topics…

### Introduction to Real Analysis

This is a text for a two-term course in introductory real analysis for junior or senior mathematics majors and science students with a serious interest in mathematics. Prospective educators or mathematically gifted high school students can also…

### Introduction to Environmental Science

This course uses the basic principles of biology and earth science as a context for understanding environmental policies and resource management practices. Our planet is facing unprecedented environmental challenges, from oil spills to global climate…

### General Biology

The word biology means, "the science of life", from the Greek bios, life, and logos, word or knowledge. Therefore, Biology is the science of Living Things. That is why Biology is sometimes known as Life Science.

### Fundamentals of Mathematics

Fundamentals of Mathematics is a work text that covers the traditional study in a modern prealgebra course, as well as the topics of estimation, elementary analytic geometry, and introductory algebra. It is intended for students who:

have had…

have had…

### Fast Fourier Transforms

This book focuses on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), discrete convolution, and, particularly, the fast algorithms to calculate them. These topics have been at the center of digital signal processing since its beginning, and new results in…

### Euclidean Plane and Its Relatives

This book is designed for a semester-long course in Foundations of Geometry and meant to be rigorous, conservative, elementary and minimalistic.

### Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems

Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems is written for students in science, engineering, and mathematics who have completed calculus through partial differentiation.

An elementary text should be written so the student…

An elementary text should be written so the student…

### Elementary College Geometry

This text is intended for a brief introductory course in plane geometry. It covers the topics from elementary geometry that are most likely to be required for more advanced mathematics courses. The only prerequisite is a semester of algebra.

The…

The…

### Applied Finite Mathematics

Applied Finite Mathematics covers topics including linear equations, matrices, linear programming, the mathematics of finance, sets and counting, probability, Markov chains, and game theory.

### College Physics

This introductory, algebra-based, two-semester college physics book is grounded with real-world examples, illustrations, and explanations to help students grasp key, fundamental physics concepts. This online, fully editable and customizable title…

### College Algebra

College Algebra is an introductory text for a college algebra survey course. The material is presented at a level intended to prepare students for Calculus while also giving them relevant mathematical skills that can be used in other classes. The…

### Applied Probability

This is a "first course" in the sense that it presumes no previous course in probability. The mathematical prerequisites are ordinary calculus and the elements of matrix algebra. A few standard series and integrals are used, and double integrals are…

### Advanced Algebra II: Conceptual Explanations

This module contains a table of every module within the three books of Kenny Felder's course on "Algebra II", with links to the modules.

### A Primer of Real Analysis

This is a short introduction to the fundamentals of real analysis. Although the prerequisites are few, I have written the text assuming the reader has the level of mathematical maturity of one who has completed the standard sequence of calculus…

### A Computational Introduction to Number Theory and Algebra

All of the mathematics required beyond basic calculus is developed “from scratch.” Moreover, the book generally alternates between “theory” and “applications”: one or two chapters on a particular set of purely mathematical concepts are followed by…

### Petropolitics : Petroleum Development, Markets and Regulations, Alberta as an Illustrative History

The importance of energy to the functioning of any economy has meant that energy industries are amongst the most regulated of industries. What might appear to be purely private decisions are made within a complex and evolving web of government…

### Applied Combinatorics

As we hope you will sense right from the beginning, we believe that combinatorial

mathematics is one of the most fascinating and captivating subjects on the planet.

Combinatorics is very concrete and has a wide range of applications, but it also…

mathematics is one of the most fascinating and captivating subjects on the planet.

Combinatorics is very concrete and has a wide range of applications, but it also…

### Product Environmental, Health and Safety Standards

This module provides you with the foundational knowledge you need to understand what 'products' are, and how they can be classified, designed, produced and disposed of in ways that best preserve and promote the integrity of the environment, and of…

### Environmental Control, Monitoring And Modeling

We start by defining air pollution and examining the main sources of air pollution. We then classify air pollutants according to origin, chemical composition, state of matter, and area of impact; and examine the effects of air pollution, particularly…

### Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a widely used tool for assessing the

environmental implications of projects, policies and plans. It is also an integral part of the decision-making processes involving environmental issues. With the…

environmental implications of projects, policies and plans. It is also an integral part of the decision-making processes involving environmental issues. With the…

### A Foundation In Pure Mathematics

Everyone in Hong Kong has heard of the Mark Six! Players select six different numbers from 49 possibilities in the hope of winning a small fortune - or possibly even a large one.

So how many different choices of six numbers out of 49 are there? If…

So how many different choices of six numbers out of 49 are there? If…

### Advances in Chemical Synthesis

Organic chemistry belongs to a branch of chemistry that is generally associated with

compounds containing carbon. It is so important because millions of compounds that contain carbon are related to our daily lives, so organic chemistry has many…

compounds containing carbon. It is so important because millions of compounds that contain carbon are related to our daily lives, so organic chemistry has many…

### Contemporary Biology Development

We’ll begin with a brief introduction to the two main types of stem cells, embryonic

and adult stem cells. We’ll then discuss stem cell potency.

The second section “Stem cells in research and diseases management” will focus on

the opportunities…

and adult stem cells. We’ll then discuss stem cell potency.

The second section “Stem cells in research and diseases management” will focus on

the opportunities…

### A Foundation In Applied Mathematics

This module develops concepts and techniques for studying functions. You will learn about one of the foundations of applied mathematics, i.e. the algebraic and graphic methods for studying functions.

You'll be introduced to clear define and…

You'll be introduced to clear define and…

### Conservation and Biodiversity

Biodiversity is perhaps the hottest topic in ecology textbooks and courses worldwide

today. One very basic (core) objective of country park management is to conserve

biodiversity.

today. One very basic (core) objective of country park management is to conserve

biodiversity.

### Collaborative Statistics

Collaborative Statistics was written by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean, faculty members at De Anza College in Cupertino, California. The textbook was developed over several years and has been used in regular and honors-level classroom settings and…

### Calculus Volume 2

Calculus is designed for the typical two- or three-semester general calculus course, incorporating innovative features to enhance student learning. The book guides students through the core concepts of calculus and helps them understand how those…

### Calculus Volume 1

Calculus is designed for the typical two- or three-semester general calculus course, incorporating innovative features to enhance student learning. The book guides students through the core concepts of calculus and helps them understand how those…

### Applied Ecology

Applied ecology is a framework for the application of knowledge about ecosystems so

that actions can be taken to create a better balance and harmony between people and

nature in order to reduce human impact on other beings and their habitats.

that actions can be taken to create a better balance and harmony between people and

nature in order to reduce human impact on other beings and their habitats.

### Algebra and Trigonometry

lgebraic principles. The text is suitable for a typical introductory Algebra & Trigonometry course, and was developed to be used flexibly. The modular approach and the richness of content ensures that the book meets the needs of a variety of…

### Quantitative Research Methods for Political Science, Public Policy and Public Administration (With Applications in R): 3rd Edition

The focus of this book is on using quantitative research methods to test hypotheses and build theory in political science, public policy and public administration. It is designed for advanced undergraduate courses, or introductory and intermediate…

### The Value of the University Armed Service Units

This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the value of the university armed service units – the University Officer Training Corps, University Royal Naval Units and University Air Squadrons. The units, many of which date back to the early 20th…

### The Curious Country

By definition scientists are an inquisitive lot. But what are the scientific curiosities and concerns on the minds of Australians? What worries them, baffles them, and sets their curiosity meter to 10 out of 10? To find out, the Office of the Chief…

### Vibrations and Waves

The Light and Matter series of

introductory physics textbooks:

1 Newtonian Physics

2 Conservation Laws

3 Vibrations and Waves

4 Electricity and Magnetism

5 Optics

6 The Modern Revolution in Physics

introductory physics textbooks:

1 Newtonian Physics

2 Conservation Laws

3 Vibrations and Waves

4 Electricity and Magnetism

5 Optics

6 The Modern Revolution in Physics

### Zionist Israel and the Question of Palestine : Jewish Statehood and the History of the Middle East Conflict

Tamar Amar-Dahl offers a profound analysis of Israel’s political order and culture and the role of Zionism. The study uncovers the discrepancy between the Western democratic self-image of Israel and its military influenced practical approaches to…

### Genetics of human populations: evolutionary

and epidemiological applications

The present thesis deals with a deep analysis of the genetic structure of extant human worldwide populations, with a special focus on the Mediterranean. Different genetic markers, 18 Alu insertions and 367 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),…

### Genetics and Genomics

The book contains the substance of the lectures and partly of the practices of the subject of ‘Genetics and Genomics’ held in Semmelweis University for medical, pharmacological and dental students. The book does not contain basic genetics and…

### Discrete Mathematics

his text was written to be used as the primary text for the class Discrete Mathematics (Math 228) at the University of Northern Colorado. The course serves as the role of a transitions course (introduction to proof), as well as an introduction to…

### Combinatorics Through Guided Discovery

This book is an introduction to combinatorial mathematics, also known as combinatorics. The book focuses especially but not exclusively on the part of combinatorics that mathematicians refer to as "counting." The book consist almost entirely of…

### Biofundamentals

Our goal is to present the key observations and unifying concepts upon which modern biology is based; it is not a survey of all biology! Once understood, these foundational observations and concepts should enable you to approach any biological…

### A Story of Real Analysis

The typical introductory real analysis text starts with an analysis of the real number system and uses this to develop the definition of a limit, which is then used as a foundation for the definitions encountered thereafter. While this is certainly a…

### Introduction to the Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems

Introduction to the Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems introduces students to mathematical/computational modeling and analysis developed in the emerging interdisciplinary field of Complex Systems Science. Complex systems are systems made of a…

### Golda Meir : A Political Biography

For five decades Golda Meir was at the center of the political arena in Israel and left her mark on the development of the Yishuv and the state. She was a unique woman, great leader, with a magnetic personality, a highly complex individual. She…

### Key Concepts in Public Archaeology

This book provides a broad overview of the key concepts in public archaeology, a research field that examines the relationship between archaeology and the public, in both theoretical and practical terms. While based on the long-standing programme of…

### Ester Boserup’s Legacy on Sustainability : Orientations for Contemporary Research

Arising from a scientific conference marking the 100th anniversary of her birth, this book honors the life and work of the social scientist and diplomat Ester Boserup, who blazed new trails in her interdisciplinary approach to development and…

### Natural Resources Biometrics

Natural Resources Biometrics begins with a review of descriptive statistics, estimation, and hypothesis testing. The following chapters cover one- and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), including multiple comparison methods and interaction…

### Dalton State College APEX Calculus

This text for Analytic Geometry and Calculus I, II, and III is a Dalton State College remix of APEX Calculus 3.0. The text was created through a Round Six ALG Textbook Transformation Grant.

Topics covered in this text include:

Limits

…

Topics covered in this text include:

Limits

…

### Armstrong Calculus

The text is mostly an adaptation of two other excellent open- source calculus textbooks: Active Calculus by Dr. Matt Boelkins of Grand Valley State University and Drs. Gregory Hartman, Brian Heinold, Troy Siemers, Dimplekumar Chalishajar, and…

### A Spiral Workbook for Discrete Mathematics

This is a text that covers the standard topics in a sophomore-level course in discrete mathematics: logic, sets, proof techniques, basic number theory, functions, relations, and elementary combinatorics, with an emphasis on motivation. It explains…

### Motion Mountain: The Adventure of Physics: The Strand Model - A Speculation on Unification (Volume 6)

What determines colours? What is motion? All colours in nature derive from the fine structure constant 1/137.035 999 1..., the most famous unexplained number in nature. What determines its value? All motion in nature is described either by quantum…

### Arcticness

Climate change and globalisation are opening up the Arctic for exploitation by the world – or so we are told. But what about the views, interests and needs of the peoples who live in the region? This volume explores the opportunities and…

### Linear Algebra with Applications

This textbook is an introduction to the ideas and techniques of linear algebra for ﬁrst- or second-year students with a working knowledge of high school algebra. The contents have enough ﬂexibility to present

a traditional introduction to the…

a traditional introduction to the…

### Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is primarily devoted to the unique properties of the carbon atom and its compounds. These compounds play a critical role in biology and ecology, Earth sciences and geology, physics, industry, medicine and — of course — chemistry. At…

### Eutrofikasi

Open Educational Resource (OER) Unsyiah adalah satu satu Portal yang dikembangkan oleh Perpustakaan Universitas Syiah Kuala. OER Unsyiah berbasis Open Acces untuk siapa saja dan di mana saja. Bahkan Kami juga akan menerima kontribusi yang ingin ikut…

### pH Scala

### Fosforilasi Oksidatif dan Chemiosmosis

### Geometry

Geometry is used in many areas—from art to science. For example, geometry plays a key role in construction, fashion design, architecture, and computer graphics. This course focuses on the main ideas of geometry that are the foundation of applications…

### Calculus

This text comprises a three–volume series on Calculus. The ﬁrst part covers material taught in many “Calc ” courses: limits, derivaves, and the basics of integraon, found in Chapters through . The second text covers material oen taught in “Calc :”…

### Nanoinformatics

This open access book brings out the state of the art on how informatics-based tools are used and expected to be used in nanomaterials research. There has been great progress in the area in which “big-data” generated by experiments or computations…

### Rivers of the Anthropocene

This exciting volume presents the work and research of the Rivers of the Anthropocene Network, an international collaborative group of scientists, social scientists, humanists, artists, policymakers, and community organizers working to produce…

### Precalculus

There are key differences between the way teaching and learning takes place in high schools and universities. Our goal is much more than just getting you to reproduce what was done in the classroom. Here are some key points to keep in mind:

• The…

• The…

### Notes on Diffy Qs: Differential Equations for Engineers

This book originated from my class notes for teaching Math 286 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in Fall 2008 and Spring 2009. It is a ﬁrst course on differential equations for

engineers. I also taught Math 285 at UIUC and Math 20D…

engineers. I also taught Math 285 at UIUC and Math 20D…

### Motion Mountain: The Adventure of Physics: Motion Inside Matter - Pleasure, Technology and the Stars (Volume 5)

New, expanded 2017 edition - more than 200 000 readers. This physics volume presents motion inside matter. It explains how chemistry, biology, material properties, stars, nuclear reactors and particle physics follow from the quantum of action. The…

### Motion Mountain: The Adventure of Physics: Relativity (Volume 2)

New, expanded 2017 edition - more than 200 000 readers. This is the second volume of the Motion Mountain physics text, covering special relativity, general relativity and cosmology. Travelling near the speed of light, the twin paradox, black holes,…

### Motion Mountain: The Adventure of Physics: The Quantum of Change (Volume 4)

New, expanded 2017 edition - more than 200 000 readers. This physics text presents the foundations of quantum physics in a simple way, with few formulae, but using many puzzles and observations taken from everyday life. The volume shows that colours,…

### Motion Mountain: The Adventure of Physics: Fall, Flow and Heat (Volume 1)

New, expanded 2017 edition - more than 200 000 readers. How high can animals jump? What are the fastest thrown balls? How fast can aeroplanes and butterflies fly? What does the sea level tell us about the sun? What are temperature and heat? What is…

### Motion Mountain: The Adventure of Physics: Light, Charges and Brains (Volume 3)

New, expanded 2017 edition - more than 200 000 readers. This volume on electricity, magnetism and optics is written to be captivating on every page. It introduces fields, light and Maxwell's description of their motion, shows how animals, from sharks…

### Mathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof

Focusing on the formal development of mathematics, this book shows readers how to read, understand, write, and construct mathematical proofs. Uses elementary number theory and congruence arithmetic throughout. Focuses on writing in mathematics.…

### Math in Society

Math in Society is a free, open textbook. This book is a survey of contemporary mathematical topics, most non-algebraic, appropriate for a college-level topics course for liberal arts majors. The text is designed so that most chapters are…

### Mapping and the Citizen Sensor

Maps are a fundamental resource in a diverse array of applications ranging from everyday activities, such as route planning through the legal demarcation of space to scientific studies, such as those seeking to understand biodiversity and inform the…

### Introduction to Physical Oceanography

This textbook covers physical-oceanographic processes, theories, data, and measurements, targeted at upper-division undergraduates and graduate students in oceanography, meteorology, and ocean engineering. In addition to the classical topics, the…

### Introduction to Modern Set Theory

Introduction to Modern Set Theory is designed for a one-semester course in set theory at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. Three features are the full integration into the text of the study of models of set theory, the use of…

### Introduction to Differential Equations

Much of the material of Chapters 2-6 and 8 has been adapted from thewidely used textbook “Elementary differential equations and boundary value problems” by Boyce & DiPrima (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Seventh Edition, ○c 2001). Many of the examples…

### Immersion Into Noise

The noise factor is the ratio of signal to noise of an input signal to that of the output signal. Noise can block or interfere with the meaning of a message in both human and electronic communication. But in Information Theory, noise is still…

### Freshwater Microplastics

This volume focuses on microscopic plastic debris, also referred to as microplastics, which have been detected in aquatic environments around the globe and have accordingly raised serious concerns. The book explores whether microplastics represent…

### Foundations of Quantum Theory: From Classical Concepts to Operator Algebras

The international monograph series “Fundamental Theories of Physics” aims to

stretch the boundaries of mainstream physics by clarifying and developing the

theoretical and conceptual framework of physics and by applying it to a wide range

of…

stretch the boundaries of mainstream physics by clarifying and developing the

theoretical and conceptual framework of physics and by applying it to a wide range

of…

### Evaluating Climate Change Action for Sustainable Development

This authoritative book presents the ever progressing state of the art in evaluating climate change strategies and action. It builds upon a selection of relevant and practical papers and presentations given at the 2nd International Conference on…

### Essential of Geographic Information Systems

Essentials of Geographic Information Systems integrates key concepts behind the technology with practical concerns and real-world applications. Recognizing that many potential GIS users are nonspecialists or may only need a few maps, this book is…

### Earthquakes, Tsunamis and Nuclear Risks

This book covers seismic probabilistic risk assessment (S-PRA) and related studies which have become more important to increase the safety of nuclear facilities against earthquakes and tsunamis in the face of the many uncertainties after the…

### Earth Observation Open Science and Innovation

Over the past decades, rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to…

### Diversity and Evolution of Butterﬂy Wing Patterns

This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and…

### Combinatorics

Combinatorics is a subfield of "discrete mathematics," so we should begin by asking what discrete mathematics means. The differences are to some extent a matter of opinion, and various mathematicians might classify specific topics…

### Coastal Lagoons in Europe: Integrated Water Resource Strategies

Lagoons represent nearly 13% of the shoreline globally and around 5% in Europe. Coastal lagoons are shallow water bodies separated from the ocean by a barrier (e.g., narrow spit), connected at least intermittently to the ocean by one or more…

### Chemistry

Chemistry is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of the two-semester general chemistry course. The textbook provides an important opportunity for students to learn the core concepts of chemistry and understand how those concepts…

### Calculus for The Life Sciences A Modeling Approach Volume II

In our text, mathematical modeling and difference and differential equations lead, closely follow, and extend the elements of calculus. Chapter one introduces mathematical modeling in which students write descriptions of some observed processes and…

### Calculus For the Life Sciences: A Modeling Approach Volume I

In our text, mathematical modeling and difference and differential equations lead, closely follow, and extend the elements of calculus. Chapter one introduces mathematical modeling in which students write descriptions of some observed processes and…

### Beyond Waters: Archaeology and Environmental History of the Amazonian Inland

This book is one of the outcomes of the project Cultivated Wilderness: Socio-economic development and environmental change in pre-Columbian Amazonia (http://www.cultivated-wilderness.org/). The project has particularly focused on the previously…

### Basics of Fluid Mechanics

Basic Textbook for fluid mechanics class. This book is update regularly on potto home website. The book contains several of the best chapters on various phenomena such surface tension, vortex, stability, integral equations, differential equations.…

### Astronomy

Astronomy is written in clear non-technical language, with the occasional touch of humor and a wide range of clarifying illustrations. It has many analogies drawn from everyday life to help non-science majors appreciate, on their own terms, what our…

### Applied Discrete Structures

Applied Discrete Structures, is a two semester undergraduate text in discrete mathematics, focusing on the structural properties of mathematical objects. These include matrices, functions, graphs, trees, lattices and algebraic structures. The…

### Applied Calculus

An openly licensed applied calculus textbook, covering derivatives, integrals, and an intro to multivariable calculus. This book is heavily remixed from Dale Hoffman's Contemporary Calculus textbook, and retains the same conceptual focus from that…

### Self-Assembled Molecules – New Kind of Protein Ligands

The standard substrate complexation mechanism engages natural binding sites. In contrast, supramolecular structures may form complexes with proteins by

penetrating in regions which are either naturally unstable or become temporarily accessible due…

penetrating in regions which are either naturally unstable or become temporarily accessible due…

### Statistical Analysis with The General Linear Model

This course is about a large and complex set of statistical methods tied together by a unifying conceptual framework known as “The General Linear Model” (GLM). This model can be used to answer an amazing variety of research questions within an…

### The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks

This book is based on the collective knowledge of the GEO BON network of volunteers, working towards the establishment of a global, sustainable observation

system for monitoring changes in biodiversity. As such, a great number of colleagues have…

system for monitoring changes in biodiversity. As such, a great number of colleagues have…

### The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality Volume II

This book invites you on a voyage of discovery, to explore society’s open secrets, to comprehend unwritten rules and to uncover informal practices. Broadly defined as ‘ways

of getting things done’, these informal yet powerful

practices tend to…

of getting things done’, these informal yet powerful

practices tend to…

### The Global Encyclopaedia of Informality Volume I

This book invites you on a voyage of discovery, to explore society’s open secrets, to comprehend unwritten rules and to uncover informal practices. Broadly defined as ‘ways

of getting things done’, these informal yet powerful

practices tend to…

of getting things done’, these informal yet powerful

practices tend to…

### Thinking Beyond Sectors for Sustainable Development

As we move from the era of the Millennium Development Goals to the Sustainable Development Goals it is important to consider how development agendas

are set, the progress that has been made over the past

15 years, and how current debates are…

are set, the progress that has been made over the past

15 years, and how current debates are…

### Variational Principles in Classical Mechanics

The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the intellectual beauty, and philosophical implications,

of the fact that nature obeys variational principles that underlie the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian analytical

formulations of classical…

of the fact that nature obeys variational principles that underlie the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian analytical

formulations of classical…

### Vector Calculus

This book covers calculus in two and three variables. It is suitable for a one-semester course, normally known as “Vector Calculus”, “Multivariable Calculus”, or simply “Calculus III”. The prerequisites are the standard courses in single-variable…

### Weather & Climate Services for the Energy Industry

This chapter discusses the information gaps relating to the type, level of accuracy and frequency of delivery of specific weather and climate information, and what extra information is required by the energy sector in the coming years. It is argued…

### Active Calculus Multivariable

In Active Calculus - Multivariable, we endeavor to actively engage students in learning the subject through an activity-driven approach in which the vast majority of the examples are completed by students. Where many texts present a general theory of…

### Abstract Algebra

This text is intended for a one or two-semester undergraduate course in abstract algebra. Traditionally, these courses have covered the theoretical aspects of groups, rings, and fields. However, with the development of computing in the last several…

### Introductory Chemistry

David W. Ball of Cleveland State University brings his new survey of general chemistry text, Introductory Chemistry. This book is intended for a one-semester introductory or preparatory chemistry course. Throughout the chapters, David presents two…

### General Chemistry

Wikibooks is for textbooks, annotated texts, instructional guides, and manuals. These materials can be used in a traditional classroom, an accredited or respected institution, a home-school environment, or for self-learning.

### Thermodynamics and Chemistry

Thermodynamics and Chemistry is designed primarily as a textbook for a one-semester course in classical chemical thermodynamics at the graduate or undergraduate level. It can also serve as a supplementary text and thermodynamics reference source.

### Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking Version 1.4

This is an introductory textbook in logic and critical thinking. The goal of the

textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable

them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an

introductory…

textbook is to provide the reader with a set of tools and skills that will enable

them to identify and evaluate arguments. The book is intended for an

introductory…

### Fundamental Methods of Logic

There’s an ancient view, still widely held, that what makes human beings special—what distinguishes us from the “beasts of the field”—is that we are rational. What does rationality consist in? That’s a vexed question, but one possible response…

### Introduction to Probability

Probability theory began in seventeenth century France when the two great French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat, corresponded over two problems from games of chance. Problems like those Pascal and Fermat solved continued to…

### General Chemistry Principles, Patterns, and

Applications

In this new millenium, as the world faces new and extreme challenges, the importance of acquiring a solid foundation in chemical principles has become increasingly important to understand the challenges that lie ahead. Moreover, as the world becomes…

### Anatomy and Physiology of Animals

fter completing this section, you should know the:

• symbols used to represent atoms;

• names of molecules commonly found in animal cells;

• characteristics of ions and electrolytes;

• basic structure of carbohydrates with examples;

•…

• symbols used to represent atoms;

• names of molecules commonly found in animal cells;

• characteristics of ions and electrolytes;

• basic structure of carbohydrates with examples;

•…

### Thermodynamics : Energy, Entropy, and The Fundamental Laws of Physics.

Easy to understand animation explaining energy, entropy, and all the basic concepts including refrigeration, heat engines, and the end of all life in the Universe.

### Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

A description of the concepts behind Analysis of Variance. Also, see this site: http://www.psych.utah.edu/stat/introstats/anovaflash.html for a "hands-on" experience.

### Probability and Statistics

We discuss probability and do some basic examples to refresh our memory on practice problems involving probability. Next video we focus on expectation values/ mean and the second moment of distribution.

### Monoclonal Antibody Production

This is a brief overview of the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAb), also known as hybridoma technology. Design inspired by Salman Khan. Special thanks to Professor DeMasi @ MCPHS University.

Davidson College's website on…

Davidson College's website on…

### Computational Biology

What is Computational Biology

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods,…

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.

Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods,…

### Calculus using Matlab - Laplace Transform

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### Calculus - Derivative of an Inverse Function

Calculus lecture explaining the derivative of an inverse function.

Gives a graphical explanation of how the derivative of an inverse function is related to the reciprocal of the derivative of the original function.

Uses the example y = x^2 + 1…

Gives a graphical explanation of how the derivative of an inverse function is related to the reciprocal of the derivative of the original function.

Uses the example y = x^2 + 1…

### Alkanes and Alkenes

Learn the basics of alkanes and alkenes. After watching the covalent bonds video you should have sufficient knowledge to understand about how alkanes and alkenes are formed and the differences between them. SUBSCRIBE to our channel to access many…

### Human Biology

Montage edited from the lecture slides of the Human Biology Core Faculty, including Professors Bill Durham, Richard Klein, Katherine Preston, William Talbot, Bill Scheidel, Margaret Fuller, Anne Fernald, David Lyons, Roland Nusse, Laura Carstensen,…

### Radiation In The Environment

In the post-nuclear era the word ‘radiation’, in the popular lexicon, has taken on a specialized and negative meaning. Largely because of media misinterpretation the word now suggests to the non-scientist the malignant effects associated with the…

### Statistical Mechanics

This is a book about statistical mechanics at the advanced undergraduate level. It assumes a background in

classical mechanics through the concept of phase space, in quantum mechanics through the Pauli exclusion

principle, and in mathematics…

classical mechanics through the concept of phase space, in quantum mechanics through the Pauli exclusion

principle, and in mathematics…

### Introduction to Numerical Methods and Matlab Programming for Engineers

These notes were developed by the firsht author in the process of teaching a course on applied

numerical methods for Civil Engineering majors during 2002-2004 and was modified to include

Mechanical Engineering in 2005. The materials have been…

numerical methods for Civil Engineering majors during 2002-2004 and was modified to include

Mechanical Engineering in 2005. The materials have been…

### Biostratigraphic And Geological Significance Of Planktonic Foraminifera

Foraminifera are marine, free-living, amoeboid protozoa

(in Greek, proto = first and zoa = animals). They are

single-celled eukaryotes (organisms the cytoplasm of

which is organized into a complex structure with internal

membranes and contains a…

(in Greek, proto = first and zoa = animals). They are

single-celled eukaryotes (organisms the cytoplasm of

which is organized into a complex structure with internal

membranes and contains a…

### Introduction to Numerical Methods

What follows are my lecture notes for Math 3311: Introduction to Numerical Methods, taught at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Math 3311, with two lecture hours per week, is primarily for non-mathematics majors and is required by…

### Hydrocarbon

The theory of the abiogenic deep origin of hydrocarbons recognizes that the petroleum is a primordial material of deep origin [Kutcherov, Krayushkin 2010]. This theory explains that hydrocarbon compounds generate in the asthenosphere of the Earth and…

### Basic Analysis: Introduction to Real Analysis

A first course in mathematical analysis. Covers the real number system, sequences and series, continuous functions, the derivative, the Riemann integral, sequences of functions, and metric spaces.

### Introduction to Management Information Systems

All individuals, companies and, in general, all organisations are continuously capturing data, many of which are of no significance to them at all. However, other data are available that would afford them a better understanding of their own…

### Project Management

This book covers the basics of project management. This includes the process of initiation, planning, execution, control and close out that all projects share.

### Estrogen

Created by Vishal Punwani.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-reproductive-system-physiology/rn-reproductive-system/v/maternal-changes-in-pregnancy?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn

Missed…

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/nclex-rn/rn-reproductive-system-physiology/rn-reproductive-system/v/maternal-changes-in-pregnancy?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=Nclex-rn

Missed…

### Endocrine System and Influence on Behavior Part 2

Created by Ryan Scott Patton.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/human-development/v/egg-sperm-and-fertilization?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat

Missed the previous lesson?…

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/human-development/v/egg-sperm-and-fertilization?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat

Missed the previous lesson?…

### Endocrine System and Influence on Behavior - Part 1

Created by Ryan Scott Patton.

Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/behavior/biological-basis-of-behavior-ner/v/endocrine-system-and-influence-on-behavior-part-2?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=mcat

Missed…

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Missed…

### Elementary Diferrential Equantions

Elementary Differential Equations by William F. Trench Andrew G. Cowles Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Department of Mathematics, Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas, USA,Previously published by Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning, 2000. This book has…

### For All X; The Lorain County Remix

This book was created by combining two previous books on logic and critical thinking, both made available under a Creative Commons license, and then adding some material so that the coverage matched that of commonly used logic textbooks.

### Introductory Statistics

ntroductory Statistics is designed for the one-semester, introduction to statistics course and is geared toward students majoring in fields other than math or engineering. This text assumes students have been exposed to intermediate algebra, and it…

### Microbiology

Microbiology is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements for the single-semester Microbiology course for non-majors. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications of microbiology in healthcare…

### Analytical Chemistry 2.0

Analytical chemistry is more than a collection of analytical methods and an understanding of equilibrium chemistry; it is an approach to solving chemical problems. Although equilibrium chemistry and analytical methods are important, their coverage…

### Environmental Biology

Environmental Biology enables students to develop a nuanced understanding of today’s most pressing environmental issues. This text helps students grasp the scientific foundation of these issues so that they can better understand the world around them…

### Concept Development Studies in Chemistry

Concept Development Studies in Chemistry is an on-line textbook for an Introductory General Chemistry course. Each module develops a central concept in Chemistry from experimental observations and inductive reasoning. This approach complements an…

### Chemistry: Atoms First

Chemistry - Atoms First is a peer-reviewed, openly licensed introductory textbook produced through a collaborative publishing partnership between OpenStax and the University of Connecticut and UConn Student Government Association. This title is an…

### Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis: Volumes II

A free, open-access organic chemistry textbook (volumes I and II) in which the main focus is on relevance to biology and medicine. This is a PDF version of a wiki project called Chemwiki at the University of California, Davis. There are also…

### Organic Chemistry With a Biological Emphasis: Volumes I

Open-access organic chemistry textbook (volumes I and II) in which the main focus is on relevance to biology and medicine. This is a PDF version of a wiki project called Chemwiki at the University of California, Davis. There are also supplementary…

### Microbiology

This Microbiology textbook, adapted from the Boundless version, is intended to provide health care professionals with a working knowledge of infectious disease. Much of the book is devoted to the structure/function relationships in pathogenic…

### All About Cells

Life. Every single living thing has something in common—do you know what that is? The clue is in the title! In this learning package you will learn all about cells—the parts and the functions of those parts. By learning about the basic building…

### Clinical Biochemistry

The pre-analytical phase is defined as the period from the physician’s indication of the test up to the laboratory

analysis of the biological material. In other words, this phase involves an individual’s preparation for collection of the biological…

analysis of the biological material. In other words, this phase involves an individual’s preparation for collection of the biological…

### Lecture Notes on Thermodynamics

These are lecture notes for AME 20231, Thermodynamics, a sophomore-level undergraduate course taught in the Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Notre Dame. The objective of the course is to survey practical and…

### Active Calculus 2.0

Active Calculus is different from most existing calculus texts in at least the following ways: the text is freely readable online in HTML format and is also available for in PDF; in the electronic format, graphics are in full color and there are live…

### Concepts of Biology-1st Canadian Edition

In this survey text, directed at those not majoring in biology, we dispel the assumption that a little learning is a dangerous thing. We hope that by skimming the surface of a very deep subject, biology, we may inspire you to drink more deeply and…

### Precalculus: An Investigation of Functions (Includes Trig) 2nd Ed

The first portion of the book is an investigation of functions, exploring the graphical behavior of, interpretation of, and solutions to problems involving linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. An emphasis is placed on…

### Precalculus: An Investigation of Functions (Includes Trig) 1st Ed

The first portion of the book is an investigation of functions, exploring the graphical behavior of, interpretation of, and solutions to problems involving linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. An emphasis is placed on…

### Active Calculus 1.0

Active Calculus is different from most existing calculus texts in at least the following ways: the text is free for download by students and instructors in .pdf format; in the electronic format, graphics are in full color and there are live html…

### Elementary Algebra

This is the Elementary Algebra textbook used by the Department of Mathematics in their Elementary Algebra course at College of the Redwoods, Eureka, California.

License: Creative Commons Attribution Sharealike Noncommercial. This license is very…

License: Creative Commons Attribution Sharealike Noncommercial. This license is very…

### OpenIntro Statistics

The OpenIntro project was founded in 2009 to improve the quality and availability of education by producing exceptional books and teaching tools that are free to use and easy to modify. The inaugural effort is OpenIntro Statistics. Probability is…

### Introductory Chemistry - 1st Canadian Edition

The goal of this textbook is not to make you an expert. True expertise in any field is a years-long endeavor. Here I will survey some of the basic topics of chemistry. This survey should give you enough knowledge to appreciate the impact of chemistry…

### Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering

The third edition of this highly acclaimed undergraduate textbook is suitable for teaching all the mathematics ever likely to be needed for an undergraduate course in any of the physical sciences. As well as lucid descriptions of all the topics…

### Introductory Algebra Student Workbook

This workbook was created through the efforts of instructors at Scottsdale Community College in Scottsdale, Arizona, has been used by thousands of students, and is continually improved. This workbook contains have lessons that were carefully and…

### Beginning and Intermediate Algebra

Beginning and Intermediate Algebra was designed to reduce textbook costs to students while not reducing the quality of materials. This text includes many detailed examples for each section along with several problems for students to practice and…

### Prealgebra

A clear, methodical approach to topics in prealgebra, with good explanations of concepts. This book includes plenty of examples and then exercises. Equation solving is started earlier and used throughout.

Geometric topics (e.g., area and…

Geometric topics (e.g., area and…

### Pre-Algebra

A pre-algebra text, written by Angela Milano from American River College. For each section the text includes a student activity, narrative text with examples, and exercises.

License: Creative Commons Attribution Sharealike Noncommercial. This…

License: Creative Commons Attribution Sharealike Noncommercial. This…

### Basic Arithmetic Student Workbook

This workbook was created through the efforts of three instructors at Scottsdale Community College in Scottsdale, Arizona, has been used by thousands of students, and is continually improved. This workbook contains have lessons that were carefully…

### Arithmetic for College Students

This book is a course on arithmetic designed for college students. It covers whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, ratios and proportions, measurement, and integers. Geometry and statistics are integrated throughout the text rather than…

### Calculus Early Transcendental: an Open Text

Calculus: Early Transcendentals, originally by D. Guichard, has been redesigned by the Lyryx editorial team. Substantial portions of the content, examples, and diagrams have been redeveloped, with additional contributions provided by experienced and…

### A Friendly Introduction to Differential Equations

n this book, there are five chapters: The Laplace Transform, Systems of Homogeneous Linear Differential Equations (HLDE), Methods of First and Higher Orders Differential Equations, Extended Methods of First and Higher Orders Differential Equations,…

### A First Course in Linear Algebra

In this book, there are five chapters: Systems of Linear Equations, Vector Spaces, Homogeneous Systems, Characteristic Equation of Matrix, and Matrix Dot Product. It has also exercises at the end of each chapter above to let students practice…

### Introduction to Mathematical Analysis I

The lecture notes contain topics of real analysis usually covered in a 10-week course: the completeness axiom, sequences and convergence, continuity, and differentiation. The lecture notes also contain many well-selected exercises of various levels.…

### Malariology: Biology of the Parasite

Malaria parasites are highly species

specific. No animal reservoir for human

malaria parasites.Malaria: Plasmodium Species of

Human Disease

specific. No animal reservoir for human

malaria parasites.Malaria: Plasmodium Species of

Human Disease

### Foundations in Statistical Reasoning

This book starts by presenting an overview of the statistical thought process. By the end of chapter 2, students are already familiar with concepts such as hypotheses, level of significance, p-values, errors. Normally these topics are not introduced…

### Contemporary Calculus

How to Succeed in Beginning Calculus

Calculus is the mathematics of CHANGE and almost everything in our world is changing.

Calculus is among the most important and useful developments of human thought, and, even though it is over 300 years old, it…

Calculus is the mathematics of CHANGE and almost everything in our world is changing.

Calculus is among the most important and useful developments of human thought, and, even though it is over 300 years old, it…

### Atomic Physics

Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. It is primarily concerned with the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus and the processes by which these arrangements change.…

### The Meaning of Clinical Death

Clinical death is the medical term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing, the two necessary criteria to sustain human and many other organisms' lives. It occurs when the heart stops beating in a regular rhythm, a condition called cardiac…

### Cancer System Biology

Cancer systems biology encompasses the application of systems biology approaches to cancer research, in order to study the disease as a complex adaptive system with emerging properties at multiple biological scales. More explicitly, because cancer…

### DNA Replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule. This process occurs in all living organisms and is the basis for biological inheritance. DNA is made up of a…

### Chemistry Adventure

How do simple things like yeast, soap, and hydrogen peroxide come together to create a foam-splosion reaction? Tweak the ingredients to find out in this choose-your-own-adventure video series!

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### Radiation Rays: Alpha, Beta and Gamma

Simulations provided free under a Department of Labor grant awarded Eastern Iowa Community Colleges. To learn more visit http://www.eicc.edu.

Input by : Dian Islamiati

Input by : Dian Islamiati

### Spore

In biology, a spore is a unit of asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavorable conditions. By contrast, gametes are units of sexual reproduction. Spores form part of the…

### Exact Trig Values - Hand Trick

There are some key angles that have exact values in trigonometry. The ones we need to know are 0, 30, 45, 60 and 90.

In this video we will discover one method of remember what these values are - by counting fingers on our hand!

In the first…

In this video we will discover one method of remember what these values are - by counting fingers on our hand!

In the first…

### Gamete

A gamete (from Ancient Greek ??µ??? gamete from gamein "to marry") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce. In species that produce two morphologically distinct types of gametes,…

### Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Some insects, fishes,…

### Philosophy of Biology

The philosophy of biology is a subfield of philosophy of science, which deals with epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical issues in the biological and biomedical sciences. Although philosophers of science and philosophers generally have long been…

### Identifying Minerals

An overview of the tests that can help you to identify a mineral sample

Input by : Elvira Nadya Saleh

Input by : Elvira Nadya Saleh

### Pure Mathematics

What is PURE MATHEMATICS? What does PURE MATHEMATICS mean? PURE MATHEMATICS meaning - PURE MATHEMATICS definition - PURE MATHEMATICS explanation.

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/…

Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/…

### Plate Tectonics

Summary – the theory of plate tectonics had enabled us to explain the origin of earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain building and has told us the fascinating history of the earth. To find out the evidence for all this watch “Wegener and the proof of…

### Density of Different States

In this video we are going to look at what density is, how it is measured and the differences in density between the different states of matter. Informally, density is a measure of how ‘packed’ a material is with mass. Density is defined as the mass…

### The Forces on an Aeroplane

The video is a contextualized and translated version (suitable for Indian audiences) of the original MITK12 video (linked below). The original license allows the use of this video under CC-BY-NC-SA domain of creative commons community.

LIL…

LIL…

### What is DNA

DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid) is extremely important. All living things have DNA, or in the case of some viruses they have RNA instead.

In eukaryotes, it is found within the nucleus and is arranged into chromosomes.

DNA determines the…

In eukaryotes, it is found within the nucleus and is arranged into chromosomes.

DNA determines the…

### Functions and Relations

Part of the NCSSM Online AP Calculus Collection: This video deals with transformations of functions including parent functions and the library of functions and relations. http://www.dlt.ncssm.edu

Please attribute this work as being created by the…

Please attribute this work as being created by the…

## Collection Tree

- 500 Science
- 500 Science
- 510 Mathematics
- 520 Astronomy
- 530 Physics
- 540 Chemistry
- 550 Earth Sciences & Geology
- 560 Fossils & Prehistoric Life
- 570 Biology
- 570 Biology
- 571 Physiology & Related Subjects
- 572 Biochemistry
- 573 Specific Physiological Systems in Animals, Regional Histology & Physiology in Animals
- 575 Specific Parts of & Physiological Systems in Plants
- 576 Genetics and Evolution
- 577 Ecology
- 578 Natural History of Organisms & Related Subjects
- 579 Natural History of Microorganisms, Fungi, Algae

- 580 Plants
- 590 Animals (Zoology)